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talking with rapture of their success-- know you will now this letter, may when they have an opportunity: This think just and proper. But I cannot morning, a young sprig of fashion has easily get rid of certain habits of thinkwon a toy, and it forms the conversa- ing. I am no enemy to amusement; tion of the whole place! What effects I wish, indeed, occasionally, to partake watering places produce on the health of most of our amusements. But I can be judged only by the fick, who would have the amateurs of pleasurabear a very small proportion indeed, ble life remember that they are raunless perhaps at Bath or Bristol. tional creatures, and that time was Margate, Brighton and Cheltenham given to us, not to teaze and torture are merely places of amusement, and it, as children do kittens, from sheer the propriety or impropriety of visit- ignorance.- I could not but observe ing them can be seldom considered here, what, however, I have obunless with that view. As dissipation served at every watering-place, that increases, and an imitation of falhion- young ladies are very apt to acquire able life becomes more general, these a boldness of manner, which is unplaces will be crowded in proportion, graceful and unbecoming. Asociaand the metropolis, for some months tions between young people of both in each year, muft lie under the im- sexes are here made on the most faputation of being a peltilential place. miliar terms: for a young gentleman.

Where time hangs heavy, little is, indeed, so necessary an appendage things will please. Trifles in them- to a family party, that unless someselves contemptible are important to thing very notorious is known of him, vacant minds. The company are at he is seldom uninvited, and unempresent prodigiously pleased to stare at ployed. a woman of fashion, who diverts them The season at Cheltenham lafts bein various ways. She dances, and tween four and five months, accordevery eye is fixed upon her; the walks ing to the state of the weather. The to the spaw, and all the world follows company generally exceed five hun. her. Her dress is an object of great dred. The inhabitants of the town importance, not from its fuperior ele- are about two thousand ; some new gance or taste, but from its fingulari- houses are building, for which very ty; habited as an Indian princess, the high rents are asked: the advantages smokes tobacco in the true eastern of such speculations, as I have already stile. The beauty of her face, in pity remarked, muft depend on the quanto the beholders, is concealed under tity of fashion granted to the place a thick layer of paint; and her deli- from year to year. The increase of cate and well formed ancle may be population in a place supported chiefly guessed at only from the tightness of by periodical flights from the metroher boots! They tell me that she leads polis, muft at lait be stationary: the the fashions, and that the place would advantages to be reaped from itrangbe nothing without her, and that she ers, being precarious, are not always is charitable and gives a great deal of very desirable, nor always conducive money to the poor. This, indeed, to honesty in dealing. This remark is an amiable trait of character. Let must be understood generally. It has us fay upon this account, Woman, no particular reference to this place. thy líns are forgiven.' I fhall always The only manufacture here is that of allow that he who makes the poor cotton stockings, and the women and happy, may be excused when he children of the lower fort find employmakes himself a fool.

ment in combing and spinning woolI am afraid, my dear fir, that I len yarn for the clothiers. have dwelt longer on this subject, than

I am, &c. certain friends of ours, to whom I

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OBSERVATIONS on the ANCIENT and PRESENT STATE of ROME, The following Article is fele&ted from · Letters during the Course of a Tour

through Germany, Switzerland and Italy, in the Years 1791 and 1792 ; with Reflections on the Manners, Literature, and Religion of those Countries; by Robert Gray, M. A. Vicar of Farringdon, Berks. In these Leters, Places that have been frequently defiribed by former Travellers are viewed in a Variety of new and interesting Lights; and the judicious Observations interspersed throughout, evince the Spirit of an intelligent and discriminating Traveller. L ET TER XXIX: works of ancient and modern times,

and almost impossible to discriminate Rome, Dec. 10. between the characters of ancient and B of

Rome be characterized! We are cent date exhibit the detached and confused with the unconnected di- sculptured fragments of Roman build. versity of objects which we have seen ings. Chriftian churches are erected in a few days, under the direction of on the foundations, and constructed the abbé Andrè, a Cicerone, who at- with the materials of heathen temples. tends us upon reasonable terms, and The ftatues of the apostles are supis an economist in disbursements ; ported by the columns of the emwho is an absolute walking map, and perors ; and the remains of the pum fufficiently intelligent in the history of teoli, designed for the reception of the antiquities to which he conducts the vileit slaves, are lost in the laus. We have already visited many byrinth of the catacombs, now hoof the fallen monuments of the hea- noured as the fepulchre of the primithen empire-the shattered coluinns tive martyrs. Could Rome, in its of temples in which idolatry triumph- proud day, have foreseen that the ed--the broken remains of aqueducts professors of the despised religion of which conveyed whole rivers to Rome Jesus should, in future ages, thus have -the crumbling walls of theatres, dominion over the ruins of its Pagan where gladiators were fed to bleed magnificence, how would its haughty freely, and taught to die gracefully creti have been lowered ? for the amusement of unfeeling spec It is really interesting to conlider, tators, females as well as males - the how papal Rome has risen from the funk arches, through which captive ashes, and invested itself with the sovereigns were led in chains and in- pomp of the Gentile city! The church fulted dignity.

of St. Theodore stands on the ruins of Intermixed with these, we have a temple erected in honour of the infeen the proud dominion of papal fant founders of Rome, on the spot Rome—the palaces of its ambitious where they were fabulously reported pontiffs--the museums, in which the to have been nursed. The church of works of ancient genius are collected St. Cosmo and St. Damian unfolds together with the rival productions of the gates of a temple, dedicated to modern times—the churches, in which the same reputed founders of the city. the ornaments of heathen buildings That of Santa Maria, sopra Minerva, are introduced with splendid, though bespeaks its own origin: and without often incongruous application. going out of Rome to find the walls

It is vain to look for any features of the temple of Bacchus in the church of Pagan or Christian Rome fepa- of St. Urbino, we need only observe, rately: they are ftrangely blended that the Pantheon, dedicated by Aand incorporated together. It is grippa to Jove and other deities, was sometimes difficult to ascertain the consecrated by pope Bonniface the


fourth, to the Virgin and holy mar- in other instances. The vellal virtyrs, and by Gregory the fourth to gins revived again in the persons of all the saints. The Corinthian brass, nuns—processions of the holt but midespoiled from the portico of this tem- micked an ancient pattern--canonized ple, was converted into the canopy, faints succeeded to tutelary gods, and Supported by its wreathed columns, licentious ceremonies, in honour of at the papal altar of St. Peter's; and indecent emblems, are flill rememthe church of St. Paul is decorated bered *. The circumstances and apwith marble pillars, drawn from the pendages of the heathen worship were mausoleum of Adrian.

sometimes adopted, and probably in The supporters of the Romißh faith confequence of the heathen reproaches, were pleased with the idea of convert- againit the Christians, for wanting ing the sanctuaries of falshood and those things which mankind had been impiety to the purposes of reputed accustomed to reverence as most foholiness; and, upon fimilar princi- lemn and acceptable to the divinity. ples, they erected the Carthusian con- They should feem, at least by their vent over the baths of Diocletian,-- exact conformity, to result from imithe church of St. Andrea della Valle, tation on the part of the Romanists, on the place where ftood the theatre and not, as the learned but fanciful of Pompey,—that of St. Marcello, Warburton imagined, from the geon the site of the temple of Ifis, sup- neral influence of fuperstition, propressed even by Tiberius for its in- ducing the same effects under both famy,—and that of St. Agnes over fyftems. fome public stews, from the pain of Cuftoms long established in religion which the saint was miraculously pre- must have retained some power over served, as the elegant sculpture of those who determined to relinquih Algardi testifies.

their errors ; and however primitive It would have been well for the in- christianity might reprobate existing tegrity and reputation of the succes- superstitions, some things were refors of St. Peter, if they had borrowed tained as harmless in accommodation only the external materials of the hea- to prejudice, and fome were insensibly then buildings, instead of adopting at received by that fpirit of imitation the same time the pagan rites, and through which manners gradually incorporating prophane ceremonies coalesce, wherever long intercourse with the purity of the Christian wor- prevails, as it is easy, in civil matters ship. But unhappily the temples, de. also, to trace fome lines of conformity dicated to Christian faints, became between the character of ancient and often as much the scenes of idolatry modern Rome. as those which had been devoted to That the consequence of this adapfictitious deities. The statues of he- tation in religious matters has been roes were converted into those of prejudicial to the reputation of pamartyrs, ftill to receive adoration and pacy, and that the doctrine of the to preside at consecrated altars. Those Romish church is, in confequence, in who entered the church, like those a great degree anti-christian, has been who entered the temple, sprinkled Thewn by many writers. The spirit themselves with the luftral water, in- of its correspondent institutions was haled the perfumed incense, beheld often, perhaps, good, but that spirit the lighted taper, and hung up the is now evaporated, and its vital invotive tablet.

tention decayed, while the church is The continuance of heathen prac- loaded with an accumulation of barren tices has fometimes been noticeable and destructive ceremonies.

• Witness the processions that existed, within a century, in Sicily; the finger of St. Colmo, and the concha veneris worn by pilgrims.


One feature of purity, however, countenance, an imposing air, a gethe Romish church has presented amid nius and a vigour which need but enall its corruptions; a spirit of Chris- couragement and direction to break tian benevolence to its members, car: through the fetters which restrict their ried often to excess ; a fpirit, de exertion. If we would advert to the monstrated in every possible display of magnificence of the ancient city, as charity for the succour of every va- discernible in monuments ftill extant, riety of distress; and hence a triking we must consider, with astonishment, character of distinction may be disco- the grand, though half-dilapidated vered between heathen and papal fabric of Coliffæum ; the extent and Rome, in the numberless inftitutions accommodations of the Imperial which now exist for the relief of hu- baths, spread out like provinces with man misery of every kind, and at- walks, porticos, and museums, entaching to every age, from the cradle riched with every variety of decorato the grave, and in the provision for tion *; the temples of the city and every want, mental or bodily, that its obelisks, its triumphal arches and can admit of assistance or remedy. well-compacted roads, carried over · At all times there has been some- rivers and mountains, to the extremi. thing of grandeur in the Roman cha- ties of the remoteit provinces ; its racter: in all ages it has displayed aqueducts, its catacombs, its tombs, features imposing, at least, though and its palaces t. dangerous. In the periods of the re The remaining monuments, erectpublic, we cannot but admire, amid ed in the flourishing times of the rea military pafions and a rage for con- public, are inconsiderable when comquest, an uncommon generosity to pared with those of its declining state. the vanquished, an invincible forti- The Tiber ftiil divides the city, though tude, a disinterested patriotism, pri- not with the xabaçov poor, the clear • vate temperance, and integrity of itream’ of which Dionysius speaks ; domestic manners.

Amid the cor- but how have the artificial works of ruption that accompanied the increase men perished ! of empire, we are itill dazzled by the display of genius and captivating li- Disce hinc quid poffit Fortuna, immota

labascunt terature ; by a morality highly re. fined and splendid, thoughodebased

• Et quæ perpetuo sunt fuitura manent.' with inherent errors and mixed with says the ingenious conceit of an Itavicious principles; by a vivid anima- lian poet I. tion of eloquence and enchanting, Mark Fortune's power ; fix'd monuments graces

If the virtues of the Romans hive been attractive, And things which ever fluctuate ever stay.

decay, their vices have been also great and extraordinary: their corruption has Of the Sublician or Æmilian bridge been vait, their superstitions domineer- only some piers are now left; of the ing and of extenlive influence. capitol, the fite alone is known ; its

The temper of the Romans ever immobile Saxum has disappeared ; of aspiring, ftill often exhibits its force the temple, where Numa Pompilius in the degenerate race of the present had his intercourse with Ægeria, and day, in which we may not ce a derived sanctions for his salutary laws, commanding presence, an expressive nothing remains but a dripping grotto

* • Lavacra in modum provinciarum extrucła,' says Ammianus Marcellinus, speaking of the Antonian baths crected by Caracaila, which contained private baths for 23,000 persons, and were yet smaller than thole of Dioclehan.

t in the tiine of Cerur there were tourteen aqueducts which supplied 150 spouting fountains and 118 publie bathis, betide water for the Naunaachiæ. 1 Janus Vitalis.

of poetry.

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with a broken ftatue ; of the great In viewing the remains of the marble work of the Cloaca Maxima but one city of the former emperor, we must arch of a fewer is to be seen.

join with St. Autlin in the wilh to have When an acquaintance with the seen Rome in its splendour. Jo beworks of Greece and uther countries holding the arch of the latter emperor produced a caite for the arts, the emu. loaded with the ornaments of a baplation of the candidates for popular pier period, we must regret the defavour, and the rivalihip and muniti- cay of the arts. cence of imperial patronage, filled the It is one thing, however, to concity with buildings of utetul or otten- template Rome as an admirer of the tatious character. The quarries of fine arts, and another to view it as a Egypt were imported, and the mar- philosopher. In the former character bles of Ala were worked vp to Gre- we muit be gratified at every trace of can designs. Unfortunately it hap- excellence, in the latter we mult lapened, that the teniples erected in the ment that patronage of the arts which earlier periods, and the edifices built diverted the attention of the free-born near them in later times, were so subjects of Rome fiom schemes subcrowded together, that they mult have verlive of liberty, which gradually loft half their effect.

administered to the corruption of the Rome was long bounded by its people, and relaxed the itern virtucs leven hills, and railed up its works on that had established their proiperity. a confined (cale. When its dominion The pleasure received on beholding increased, a predilection for the seat the ruins of ancient Rome, of whatof empire itill remained; and the arts, ever nature they may be, must be dethough generally introduced, were rived principally from the reflections cramped in their exertions. The ne- which they lug geit; generally fpeakcessity of fortifying a city, of which ing, the ruins have little beauty iu the inhabitants were engaged in con- their present appearance. An architinual wars with the neighbouring tect, indeed, may ftudy the broken powers, required that the treets thould entablatures of the temple of Jupiter be narrow, as inore easy to be defend- Stator as a grammar; a sculptor may ed, and as occupying a less space, spend weeks in studying the Torio; Etablihed plans are not readily alter- and a painter may contemplate, as ed; and the central part of Rome, for picturesque objects, the vaulted arches many ages, must have been restricted of the temple of Peace; but the geto its original dimentions, which were neral traveller mult derive his amuleextremely confined, as we may judgements from recalling the history, confrom the ancient plan of Rome disco- nected with the objects which he sees, vered on a pavement in the church of and from following up the thoughis St. Cofmo and St. Dimian; from the which they fuggct; and the ruins of dimensions of the ancient forum ; and Rome mult always prove intereiling from the breadth of the Via Sacra, a in proportion to our acquaintance wiin principal Atreet of Rone, in which its their history and our habis of rereligious prcellions were displayed, Auction. and in which Horace and other specu The common spe&ator, who giances lative loiterers itrolled. Rome did over the veiliges of Rome merely as not dilate into its open spaces till efta- objects of light, is soon wearied ; but blished prosperity excited conndence the intelligent traveller, who dwelis in the security of the capital.

with improving meditation on the Enough, however, of Rome re- changes winicia the city has fultainer, mains, to enable us to trace tre pro- aid on the moral caules that have eta gress of its architecture from ics per- felied ther, feels conliderable fatitection, in the time of Augutus, to fiction in ti wonderful place, a id its decay in the time of Constantine. finds every object pregnant with in



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