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They travel from Bristol, and other an attempt is made to deprive Mr. places, vending those kinds of wares Raikes of the honour of having fitit which, from price and quality (the instituted these schools, and to confer former rising as the latter decreases) it upon á reveread clergyman of this are experimentally known by the name place. The difpute may be easily of Jews' wares. - The methodilts are accommodated. Neither Mr. Raikes, very numerous, both of Wesley's and nor this gentleman, are candidates for Whitefield's perfuafon; the latter boncurs'; they have ever been mutual gentleman, I believe I mentioned in affittants in perfecting the plan, and à former epinle, was a native of are rivals only in their asliduity to Glouceller. There are seven churches promote its farther progress.- There belonging to the establishment, none are in the whole county thirty-fix of of which have any thing remarkable these schools - In the whole kingdom, in their history or structure. The re- the number of schools is eight hunmains of religious houses in and about dred and three ; and the scholars exGloucester are considerable. What ceed fifty two thousand. is left of Lanthony priory, about a Objections have been tarted against mile from the city, is interesting to this plan, the principal of which is antiquaries. It was founded by Mio, that we thall make gentlemen intiead earl of Hereford, in the year 11 36, of servants, of the child en of the and dedicated to the Virgin Mary and poor. As an objection to Sunday St. John Baptill, for the Black Canons schools, this is perfectly futile, and of Lanthony in Monmouththire, who scarcely deserves an answer, because were expelled from their habitations one of the chicf objects of attention, is by the Welch. What remains of it to inculcare on their minds humility belongs to the duke of Norfolk, and and obedience to their superiors. As is inhabited by a farmer.
an abilract propofitions tending to difWithout troubling you with a detail courage all education in the case of of the general conititution of Glou- the poor, this objection is barbarous cester, its being governed by a mayor and dilgraceful in the age we live in. and aldermen, &c. I must remind The diffufion of knowledge among you that it boasts an honour more ex- the lower classes of people, is a duty clusive. It was here that Sunday- incumbent on thofe who are able to schools were first instituted. You communicate it, and cannot be atknow my sentiments respecting the tended with any hurtful consequences, nature and utility of this inftitution. because it is an acknowledged fact, I trust that it will in time bring about that more than half the vices of the the only revolution I ever with to see; poor arise from Meer ignorance. a revolution in the morals of the Ignorance, indeed, is so generally the million. That it must be attended with parent of vice, meannefs, and every the best consequences to fociety, is not fordid sentiment and action, that we more obvious, than it is wonderful, that never mett with an illiterate opulent it 'Thould not have been thought of tradesman, who is not generally mean; sooner. I dined yeiterday with the selfifa and illiberal. knowledge, likeivorthy inftitutor, Mr. Robert Raikes, wise, if we were to grant that it tendaod, as Dr. Johnson would say, we ed to make gentlemen of these poor had much talk on the subject. There scholars, is not given in such large are above five hundred scholars in the portions, as might produce the effect. several Sunday schools here, and the It goes no higher than to be able to change which has taken place in the read, and understand the duties enjoinoutward appearance of things, fince ed by God and man. This, I conceive, this institution, is very contiderable, would be accounted, in polite circles, and very encouraging. I was lately but a andy foundation for a gentleman, shown a letter in a magazine, where a poor stock in trade to begin with,
Will a poor lad be more inclined to prepared to receive in&ruction? In a disobedience, because he is taught to word, the question is thus fimplyobey; or to vice, because it is early A religious education, or none? Can inculcated that honesty and industry any tiuking man hesitate in giving are facred as well as civil obligations ? the preference, where experience has On the contrary, will not a know- always given it? ledge and conviction of this impress But I must conclude – An excursion on his mind the necefiity and pleasure has been proposed a little way into of virtue, in such a manner as to make Herefordshire, and I am much milhim a conscientious fervant, and his taken if it will not be productive of • service pirfici friedont!' It has not matter for a longer letter than the beeu thought amits to intruct the present. We set out an hour hence, Indians whom we retain in slavery. and I have barely time to repeat that, Shall we 'be less attentive to our native servants, whole minds are better
'Some grief frows much of love, • But much of grief lows itill some want of wit.'
of our minds, more difficult to of, by exciting us to such active meabe analyzed or understood than grief. fures as may alleviate the misfortune, It is of the most mixed kind, lead- or entirely remove it; whereas the ing, if we attempt to examine it, into other, and all its operations, are a thousand confiderations, reflections, merely an affection of the mind of the and we may add, perplexities of opi- survivor, and are wholly unavailing nion. It appears, when taken in one to any useful purpose. Indeed, it has view, to be rational, afectionate and its utes in the general syilem; it is jutt; when taken in another, to ap- part of that affection which connects proach to madness
, cruelty, and ab- us together, generates kindness, and furdity. It differs from every other , mutual furbearance; and the total pallion, by producing more severe, abience of it we consider as the sign painful, and latting cities, and by of an unfeeling mind. interrupting the happiness and business, The death of a friend of long-tried of life in a greater degree. We aike and reciprocal affection is undoubtblame the total abience, and the ex- edly one of thele athictions, againit cess of it, but upon very difierent which we in vain oppose the firit.ness grounds. The degree proper tò be of philosophy, and ihe cor folations of indulged is known to few, and where Christianity. The courage of man is known cannot be practiced ; because weakness, when inclination is averse to it will always operate according to become a party. Of all loffes, those the previousflate of weakness or timm- which are irreparable are the hardeit nels, cffeminacy or mantinels, thought- to bear, and of all such losses, the leslie's or seriousness, in the general death of a friend whom we have loved, disposition.
and who has loved us, cannot be anThe chief cause of grief, of that ticipated without horror, and cangrief which is attended with the most not be experienced without anguith. violent effects, is the death of fome Friendthip is the richest, the moti palabeloved friend, or relation. Grief table, the most innocent, and the most for the misfortunes of others, , may wholesome ingredient in the cup of 1.dire properly be termed fympathy, life. When it is goae, we think all
is gone, or that what remains is ' ftale, tion of their minds, and of weakness fiae and unprofitable. The mind be- and irritabil tyin that of the's bodies. comes desolate in society, alone in a They are, indred, more subject to an crowd, helpless, though furrounded excess in all the virtuous patrons than with support; its belt support is no men. The robust heat, firmness of more, and it abandons itself to the most mind, and ever-varying avocations of poignant reflections on pait events, the latter, prevent thein trom dwelland to despair of future happiness. ing too con lantly on any one idea.
This grief for the loss of a friend, They can go abroad into the aùive however great, is still capable of be- and tumultuous world. enter into vaing heightened by being united with rious engagements and pursuits, which the tenderness of relationship. The employ the mind, and difiipate among friend lost, may be a favourite child, a variety of concerns, that attention, husband, wife, brother, or other re- which, directed to one object only, lative. In such cases, the loss is the might lead to difraction. Women more irreparable, because, in all good have not these advantages, and canminds, the relative affections are the not avail themselves of that change of strongest ties of friend'hip, and once place which brings a change of ideas. dissolved, can no more be renewed; Perhaps, too, women, confined by whereas it is not impotiible to acquire the duties and obligations of the fex friends in advanced life, perhaps equal to a more contracted circle of pleato those we have loft. But when sures, may place a higher value on grief arises from an union of love and friendship than men, because the relative affection, it may unquellion- consolations of friend hip are most ne-, ably be expected to appear in its most cessary in a state nearly approaching violent forms.
to that of solitude. We are likewise Many instances occur daily of the certain, that in all the relations of fatal effects of violent grief. In some daughter, litter, wife, or mother, their it produces a stupefaction and total attachments are stronger than those of suspension of all the faculties, which men. To these remarks there may foon ends in death. In others, where be some exceptions ; it is not meant it gets vent in tears, and expressions here to establish a rule which cannot of anguish, it still continues to prey admit of luch; nor is it necessary to on the mind, to drink up the stream compliment the sex at the expence of of life, and to precipitate the unhappy truth; but it is presumed, that what object into an intimely grave. In has been said will apply to womanothers, it produces immediate distrac. kind, in general, which, if conceded, tion of mind, from which a recovery is sufficient for the present purpose. is sometimes doubtful, and sometimes Grief, too, will vary in its degree instantly prevented by an act of defpe- according to age. The grief of chilration. It is melancholy to reflect dren is transitory; that of young peothat such are the consequences of an ple more keen and violent, but capaextreme of virtuous attachment. The ble of alleviation. • in the decline general sense of mankind is favour- of life,' says Dr. Johnson, grief is able to the memory of such unbappy of short duration ; whether it be that mourners. To say that one died of we bear easly what we have borne grief, is to excite a inixture of the long, or that, finding ourselves in age tendereit elieem and veneration. less regarded, we leis regard others;
'The degrees of grief, in every or that we look with light regard case, depend on certain circumstances upon afflictions, to which we know of mental or bodily constitution. Wo. that the hand of death is about to put men, in general, are more liable to an end.'- But although, in old pergrief than men, partly from a greater fons, it is seldom of long duration, it degree of tenderness in the constitu- must be allowed that is is very often,
in such cases, fatal. The untimely sonable grief. We all know how difdeath of a profligate son, or his life, ficult it is to if it be spent in a repetition, of crimes, without hope of repentance, Pluck fioin the memory a rooted forrow;"
IAdminister to a mind diseased-or, has brought the grey hairs of many an aged parent with sorrow to the and we seldom attempt it with any grave. In this latter instance, how- hopes of success, knowing that in such ever, it is to be observed, that grief. cales, is probably mingled with sentiments of a different kind, with indignation,
• The patient must administer unto him
telf;' horror, wounded pride, and blasted hope.
and that it is imposible to charm Difference of disposition will give ach with air, or agony with words ;' different degrees of grief
. Gay, un- but if the afilicted person has no inthinking people, are feldom susceptible gredient within to correct the exuberof this paflion in any very great de- ance of grief; if he can neither look gree, or, it may be added, in any back with pleasure, nor forward with very amiable degree. Their grief hope, if he cannot be brought to conmay be violent, but this is merely an fider the matter in either a Chriftian affection of the nerves arising from or philofophical light, we the gloomy apparatus of a death-bed, his cure to the operation of time, and and the view of a lifeless body, that to that decay of memory, which is latcly was all joy, activity, and plea- wisely contrived to lighten the load fure. It wears off very soon, easily of human calamity. yields to more pleasurable ideas, leaves Men, on the contrary, of firm yery
few traces behind, and seldom, minds, who have considered the naindeed, any kindly remembrance of ture of affliction, the purposes it serves, the decealed. Impious and profligate and the hand which chastens, who persons, and these addicted to the know how to eltimate human life, pursuit of falhionable pleasures, are still and balance its joys and sorrows, do less liable to suffer by grief. The ef- not grieve, as those who have no fence of grief is a love for the de- hope. Their grief is fincere, yet cealed, which fuch persons generally manly; permanent, yet submissive. Thow by seldom visiting them when They mourn in filence, without aro sick, and by removing as soon, and raigning the decrees of heaven by as far as porfible from them when dead, outrageous complainings. They think that they may avoid everything with the tendereft regret on him who which tends to interrupt their plea- is taken from them, perhaps in the sures, by reminding them of that midit of health, of honours, and of which is appointed to all men.' As; usefulness; yet they indulge the humfrom persons of this description, it is ble hope, that he is gone but a day's impossible to expect real friendihip, so journey before them, and that erę it is as unavailing to hope for sincere long they Mall meet to party no more. grief.
The grief of persons of weak minds, The degree and permanence of generally leads to extreme violence grief, will much depend, perhaps al- of voice and action, to intemperate ways, on the degree of weakness or expreflions bordering on impiety, and strength in the mind, independent of to a conduct which is as vexatious and every other confideration. The grief tormenting to themfelves, as it is un. of a wise man is as different from that pleasart to their friends, and disre. of any other man, as his actions would feciful to the memory of the deceased. be in a case of difficulty. People of They lament for all alike, without good hearts, but weak heads, are discriminating between those removals great sufferers by violent and unrea- which are among the kindest of hea,
ven's dispensations, and those more there in all this to justiry the excess inscrutable and sudden chastisements, of sorrow? Excessive grief for such a which are accompanied by circum- man approaches to envy of his happiAtances of distress, and perhaps dif- ness. Would you recall him, if it grace to the survivors, between the were in your power? Would you, for peaceful bed on which the Christian a moment, harbour the thought of has breathed his last, and the igno. removing your friend from his present minious scaffold on which the harden- to his former ftuation? Or if you ed convict has expiated his crimes, think yourself justified in indulging between the lingering departure of the such a preposterous wish, of what well prepared and cheerfully resigned mighty importance are you in the scale soul, and the sudden end of him who of human merit, that the decrees of is inatched away in a moment, with Providence must be altered for you? all his imperfections on his head.' You are a Chrillian, and you profess
Time has been said to be the cure the sentiments of a Christian. In of grief, and perhaps it will answer whose hands then would you wish to in most cases. It is certain, that un- place the disposal of man's happiness? less grief has produced some bodily Rather think, out of whose hands you ailment, men feldom seek for any are now wishing to take that power. other remedy, But where this passion Tremble, that you have approached so has taken deep root, time may render nearly to the murmuring of the imit more mellow, and more regular, pious, and the arrogance of the blasyet a thousand little circumstances phemer. Tremble, that you have dared will occur to keep it alive, and to for a moment to repine at the wisdom promote its hurtful effects. A better of him, in whom you profess to live remedy, however, may be found in and move, and from whom you have Christianity, in the obligations it en- derived your being, joins, and the consolations it affords. But, it may be faid, that the most
Let us consider, in the first place, poignant grief may sublift for the loss what grief is; that, with great love of a friend, without any fufpicion or for the deceased, there is mixed a intention of impugning the wise disyet greater share of self-love, prompt- pensation of Providence in taking him ing us to regret his death, more upon away. It may so, and you may deour own account than his. No per- fend it, by saying that you have lot son, I trust, will say, that there is a friend, such as the whole world canany thing to be lamented in the death not again furnish ; that you are young, of a good man. Why then all this and know not how to find such a forrow preying upon the spirits, de- friend; that the experiment is dangerstroying the health, obstructing the ous, and the favourable result next to business of life, and rendering us averse impoffible; or that you are old, when to its active duties? We cannot be so it is too late to form new connexions; ignorant as not to know, that such and that you are doomed to consume excess of grief is unavailing toward the evening of life in a mournful rethe dead, and unprofitable toward the collection of happiness, which can no living. The deceased has gone to the more be yours. place appointed for all men to re Are you perfectly certain that al} ceive the reward of a good and vir- this is as you have stated, and must tuous life. He is now far beyond the be as you predia ? Did you monoreach of all afflictions, and of all the polize all that existed of friendship; afperities which encumber the pro- or is the world so insensible, and so gress of human life. He has pasled hardened, that no attachment remains through the painful trials of fickness far virtuous old age, no connexions and sorrow, with piety unabated, and which can make the last fate as happy confidence undiminished. What is as the first? These are mere illusions,