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maining 14, reached the Arab's tower. On the 16th 1807. the Tigre alone stood in towards Alexandria, to as- March. certain from major Missit, the british resident, and arrives Mr. Briggs, the vice-consul, who were expected to off the be on board the Wizard, which had been previously detached to receive them, the strength and disposition of the garrison and inhabitants. A favourable report being returned, the transports were called in from the offing; and, in the course of the evening, all the ships anchored off the entrance of the old or western harbour.

A summons was immediately sent, demanding pos- Thesession of the town and fortresses. The next morn

garriing, the 17th, brought a reply from the governor, sumthat he would defend the place to the last extremity. On the same evening, therefore, between 600 and Troops 700 troops, along with five field-pieces, and 56 sea- and men under lieutenant James Boxer, were disembark- land. ed, without opposition, near the ravine that runs from lake Mareotis to the sea; but, owing to the heavy surf which got up in the night, the remainder, consisting of about 300 men, were not landed until the following day. On the evening of this day, the 18th, the troops moved forward, and attacked and Attack carried the enemy's advanced works, with the slight enemy. loss of seven killed and 10 wounded. On the 19th the Apollo and the missing transports appeared in the offing. On joining the Tigre, the Apollo proceeded, with all the transports, to Aboukir bay; where, on the following day, the 20th, the remainder of the troops were landed without opposition, the castle of Aboukir having previously been secured. The appearance of such a reinforcement induced the turkish governor to offer terms of capitulation, similar to those which the British had proposed. On Alex: the same afternoon these terms were accepted; and, andria at 2 A. M. on the 21st, possession was taken of the ders, heights of Caffarille and Cretin, and immediately afterwards of the city of Alexandria itself, the garrison of which amounted only to 467 troops and sailors.


Arrival of sir John

worth. British

ed at Rosetta.

1907. In the old or western harbour of Alexandria were March, found two turkish frigates and one corvette. One

frigate mounted 28 long 18-pounders (french caliber) on the main deck, and six long 8-pounders and six 18-pounder carronades on the quarterdeck and forecastle ; total 40 guns, all brass, The other frigate mounted 26 long brass 12, and eight long brass 6 pounders, total 34 guns; and the corvette 14 long 6, and two long 18 pounders, also of brass,

On the 22d vice-admiral Duckworth, with a part

of his squadron, arrived on the coast. The arrival Duck of this reinforcement induced major-general Fraser

to attack Rosetta and Rhamanieh, chiefly to get a defeat- supply of provisions for the garrison. The troops

advanced and took possession, without resistance, of the heights of Abourmandour which command the town of Rosetta. In attempting, however, to possess themselves of that town, the troops were completely defeated, and returned to Alexandria with the loss of 400 officers and men killed and wounded, in

cluding among the former the major-general himself, Dread Famine pow threatened the city of Alexandria, and fainine. vice-admiral Sir John Duckworth, leaving the com

mand of the squadron to rear-admiral Sir Thomas parture Louis, (who died soon afterwards on board the CaDuck- nopus) quitted the coast, for England; where, on

the 26th of May, the Royal-George safely arrived.

The further operations of the British in Egypt, be, ing wholly of a military nature, need not be here detailed. It may suffice to state, that the troops, being overpowered by numbers, suffered reverses; and, after losing upwards of 1000 of their number in killed, wounded, and prisoners, were compelled, in the mid

dle of September, to evacuate Egypt, and reembark Alex- on board their ships. This the British were permitandria ted to do by a convention with the governor of Egypt;

who, immediately on their departure, entered the city of Alexandria at the head of a powerful army, and rehoisted on its lofty towers the standard of Mahomet.

While on the subject of Turkish affairs, we must




Russian fleet

66 Ratvizan.


26 Kilduyn.


give some account of the naval war carried on be- 1807. tween Russia and the Porte. Vice-admiral Seniavin, who made so bold a proposal to sir John Thomas Duckworth, had been educated in the british

navy, and, if we are rightly informed, subsequently gave a under proof of his attachment by retiring from service while adm. hostilities existed between Russia and England. The avin. squadron now under his orders, and of which rearadmiral Greig was the second in command, consisted of the gun-ship

80 Rafael.
Twerday, (flag.)



60 Skoroy.


Venus. i Moscow. With this fleet, having taken possession of the Takes islands of Lemnos and Tenedos, and placed a garri- sion of son in the latter, the russian admiral blockaded the LemDardanells. Another russian squadron cruised off the mouth of the Bosphorus, and effectually cut off dos. all communication between Constantinople and the Black Sea,

Emboldened by their success over a formidable Turksquadron of the far-famed British, the Turks hastened ishfleet to equip their fleet to act against the Russians in the out of Archipelago. With this stimulus to their exertions, the the Turks managed, by the middle of May, to equip nells. a squadron of eight sail of the line, six frigates, some ship and brig corvettes, and about 50 gun-vessels. On the 19th this fleet passed the Dardanells, and, finding that the russian admiral had gone to the island of Imbro, steered for Tenedos. Here the Turks endeavoured to land a body of troops, but were repulsed, and stood over to the coast of Natolia. On Is chasthe 22d the two fleets got a sight of each other; and

by rusthat of the Turks immediately crowded sail to escape sian through the Dardanells. After a running fight of two hours, the turkish admiral succeeded in sheltering

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1807. himself under the guns of the castles that guard the

straits, but not without, it appears, losing three of his ships by stranding upon Cape Janizary.

Owing to this disaster, it was not until the 22d of again June that the Turks were again able to make their

appearance outside the Dardanells. On that day 10 force. sail of the line, including one three-decker, with six

frigates and five smaller vessels, anchored off the island of Imbro. They shortly afterwards steered for Tene

dos, and, disembarking a strong body of Turks, reTene took the island. On the 1st of July the russian fleet

descried the turkish feet off the island of Lemnos.

An engagement ensued, which lasted all day, and terand de- minated in the alleged loss to the Turks of three ships by rus

of the line and three frigates. The latter and two of the former were driven on shore. The other was

captured, and proved to be the ship of the captain ships or bey, mounting 80 brass guns, and manned with 774

men; of whom, exclusive of the loss on board the other ships, 230 were killed and 160 wounded: a sufficient proof of the obstinate manner in which the Turks had defended themselves. That they were by no means so skilful as they were brave, is evident from the small loss sustained by the Russians; which amounted, on board of all their ships, to only 135 killed and 409 wounded. It was a circumstance as singular as it was fortunate, that, on board the captured turkish ship, were found young Harwell and his four fellow-prisoners. A short time afterwards, falling in with the Kent 74, captain Edward' Oliver Osborn,

the russian admiral sent them on board that ship. Rus Having completely defeated the Turks, and commiral pelled them a second time to retire to the Dardanells,

vice-admiral Seniayin took measures to recover posnedos. session of Tenedos. On the 9th be appeared off this

island with his fleet, and summoned the turkish general to surrender upon a capitulation. This the latter did ; and on the 10th the turkish garrison, numbering 4600 men, was transported to the coast of Asia. The treaty of Tilsit, of which we have already

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given some account, having effected a total change in 1807.
the politics of Alexander, vice-admiral Seniavin, on
the 24th of August, concluded an armistice with
the Porte. He then, after detaching rear-admiral cludes
Greig, with the Moscow, St.-Petro, and some smaller mistice
vessels, to take possession of the island of Corfu, with

Turkey ceded to Russia by France under the treaty abovenamed, hastened, with the remaining nine sail of the possesline and one frigate, to get out of the Mediterranean sion of and into the Baltic, before the expected rupture

Quits between Russia and England should render that a iheMedifficult undertaking.


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At the very time that the columns of the Moniteur Napowere filled with invectives against England, for violating the neutrality of Denmark, the french

emperor was marching an army to the frontiers of Portu- from gal; and that, not because the latter had relaxed her Engneutrality in favour of Great Britain, but because she had hitherto refused wholly to abrogate it in favour of France. Napoléon had the modesty to demand, that Portugal should shut her ports against the commerce of England, and should detain the subjects of the latter and sequestrate their property ; thus compelling the prince regent virtually to declare war against the ancient ally of his house, merely to indulge the rancour of the french emperor, and assist him with a fleet of ships in his meditated plan of adding Ireland to the number of his conquests. Awed, at length, by the near approach of general Junot and an army of 40000 men, and swayed probably by the arguments of the powerful french faction that existed in the heart of his capital, the prince regent, on the 20th of October, declared, by a proclamation, that he had judged it proper “ to accede to the cause of the continent,” and shut his ports against the men of war and merchantmen of Great Britain.

Intelligence of this proceeding reached England dron early in November; and the following nine sail of the Lisbon.

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