History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volumen4

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1855
 

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Contenido

Pernicious effects of the potato
10
Want of poorlaws
11
Absentee proprietors 13 Ribbonmen and secret societies 14 Orange lodges
14
Irregularity and uncertainty in the administration of justice
15
Intimidation of juries and witnesses
16
Catholic emancipation the only remedy proposed by English Liberals and Irish malcontents
17
Effects of that measure
18
Disturbed state of Ireland in 1823 and prosecutions for the riot in the Dublin theatre
19
Disturbed state of the country
20
Renewal of the Insurrection Act and composition for tithes
21
Debates on Irish corruption and Catholic emancipation
22
Improvement of the country in 1824
24
Beneficial working of the TitheComposition Bill
25
Rise of the Catholic Association
26
Real objects of the Association
27
Roman Catholic question in reference to England
28
Parliamentary Reform Alien Bill and reversal of Scottish attainders
29
Reflections on the Alien Act
30
Reflections on this interview
31
Act for uniformity of weights and measures
32
VOL IV
33
Violence of parties and misery in Paris
35
The bill is carried and immediately evaded
40
State of corruption into which the system of centralisation had sunk
41
Reception of the Revolution at Lyons Bordeaux and in the provinces 466
47
Gloomy prospects of the nation in the beginning of 1826
48
Features good and bad of his character
53
The bill is carried by a large majority in both Houses
56
molcontents
58
Attitude of M de Lafayette and its dangers
59
30
60
What should have been done with the currency
62
Speech of the Minister of the Interior on the subject
65
Commencement of the emigration question
68
Revolutionary party in Belgium and its great increase by the events
71
Discussion on particular boroughsAppleby
74
The army is directed by the King and Chambers on Brussels
77
Division on the question and interim admission of foreign grain
79
Bill thrown out by a majority of fortyone
81
Kings message regarding Portugal
84
How this had come to pass
85
5053 Mr Cannings speech on the subject in the House of Commons 8688
86
Frightful disorders
87
Vast effect of this speech and the expedition sets out for Lisbon
89
Reflections on this point 90 55 Reflections on this point 56 Improved state of the country in the beginning of 1827
91
Death of the Duke of York
92
5859 His character
93
Illness and retirement of Lord Liverpool
95
Difficulty in the choice of his successor and Mr Cannings appointment
97
What made his Tory colleagues resign?
98
Composition of the new Cabinet
99
Importance of these events on Englands future history
100
Manner in which the changes were received in Parliament
101
Character of Lord Eldon who now retired from public life
102
His character as a statesman
103
The Catholic Bill is rejected
104
7276 Mr Peels speech against Catholic emancipation 105108
105
7778 Ministerial measure on the Corn Laws 108109
108
Result of the debate in the Commons and Lords
110
Important and curious things occurring in the course of the debate
111
Finances of 182618271828
112
Other proceedings in Parliamentsilkweavers shipowners
114
Proud position of Mr Canning
116
His susceptible disposition and increasing illness ib 86 His last illness and death
117
Reflections on this event
118
Had he lived he would have disappointed their expectations
119
Review of his last acts
120
His character as a statesman and orator
121
Lord Goderich made premier and reconstruction of the Cabinet
122
Weakness of the new Cabinet and its cause ib 93 Impolitic reduction of the yeomapry
123
Dissolution of the Goderich Cabinet
124
The Duke of Wellington appointed premier and his Cabinet
125
Reconstruction of the Cabinet by Wellington
127
Notice of the battle of Navarino in the Kings speech
128
Finance Committee and Catholic question
129
Cornlaw Bill
130
Bill for the suppression of small notes
131
Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts
133
104106 Argument for the repeal 134135
134
107108 Answer of Ministers 136138
136
The bill is carried in both Houses
138
Division on the question and violent resistance to the bill in the country 173
148
His violent language and ingratitude
154
Effects of these changes on the population and Catholics of Ireland
170
Page
172
His good qualities
183
Unworthy spirit in which emancipation was received by the Roman
196
CHAPTER XXII
200
Great effect of the entire suppression of small notes in March 1829
207
The expedition to Terceira
213
Meeting of Parliament
219
Sir James Grahams motion for a reduction of the salaries of public officers
227
Taxes remitted on beer leather and cider
233
Rise of the political unions and their great influence
244
His personal character and Queen
251
Successive efforts of the agitators and their influence on the elections
257
Its political effects
263
Immense effect produced by this declaration
269
CHAPTER XXIII
275
What made the Dukes declaration against Reform so important
278
The difficulty in forming the new Ministry fixes Mr Broughams claims
279
Character of Earl Grey
280
His character as an orator and in private
281
His defects and errors but noble use of power when acquired
282
He was misled by others as to the effect of the Reform Bill ib 11 Character of Lord Brougham
283
His merits as a Judge
284
His character as a statesman
285
His style of oratory
286
his European reputation
287
His versatile talents and character
288
His character as a diplomatist and orator ib 18 His errors
289
Lord John Russell
290
His intrepidity and selfconfidence 231
292
his administrative powers
293
His inconsistencies il
294
Distracted state of England during the winter
295
Agitation and increased misery in Ireland
296
Agitation for the repeal of the Union and prosecution of Mr OConnell who is allowed to escape
298
The budget which is defeated
300
How it was that Catholic emancipation failed
301
Description of taxes to be taken off and put on ib 30 Committee on the Reform Bill
302
Feeling and petitions of the country
303
Introduction of the Reform Bill by Lord John Russell
304
3341 Argument of the Ministers in favour of the bill 305310
305
Ministerial plan of reform
311
4344 Qualification of voters The 10 clause
313
Dangers on both sides in ulterior measures ib 60 Liberal settlement on the Royal Family
329
Efforts made to won the King by his vanity
330
Means by which the King was induced to dissolve Parliament
331
How the Kings resistance is overcome
332
Violent scene in the House of Commons
333
Scene in the House of Peers when the King dissolved Parliament
334
Violence at the elections
335
Dreadful riots in Scotland
336
Its beneficial effects on the English government
340
Reflections on this event and on the act
378
Emancipation has brought a righteous retribution to both parties 193
379
General results of the Reform Bill on the Imperial Parliament
382
Which is proved by the acts of the House of Commons
388
Which explains the universal hostility at the close boroughs
394
Command of the House of Commons gained by the shopkeepers
401
And they were subjected to the government of adverse interests
408
Dangers arising from this circumstance
415
Reunion of the Republicans at Lointiers
443
Visit of the Duke of Orléans to the Hôtel de Ville
451
Convulsions in all the north of Germany
497
In Dresden Leipsic and Brunswick
498
And in Brunswick
499
Political contests in Switzerland ib 87 Convulsions in Italy
501
Change in the order of succession in Spain ib 89 Its motives and political objects
502
Promulgation of the decree
503
Resumé of the influence of the Revolution in France over Europe
504
CHAPTER XXV
506
Cabinet divisions and fall of the Ministry
507
Commencement of the trial of the late Ministers
508
Conduct of the accused before the trial
509
Disturbed state of Paris before this
510
Commencement of the trial
511
Dissolution of the Administration
512
Formation of M Lafittes ministry
514
Lafittes statement of the principles of his ministry
515
Progress of the trial of the exministers
516
Arguments of M Sauzet for the accused ib 12 Condemnation and punishment of the accused
517
The accused are safely conveyed to Vincennes and thence to Ham
518
Disaffection of the National Guard and the misery of the capital
519
Demands of Lafayette
521
Changes in the Cabinet
522
Effects of reform in inducing Free Trade
523
Great additional expenditure for the army and its forces
524
Competition for the crown of Belgium and its final separation from Hol land
525
Crown of Belgium offered to Duke de Nemours
526
Protocol Jan 20 1831 fixing limits of Holland and Belgium
527
Views in London and Paris on Louis Philippes refusal ib 24 Weak and distracted state of Belgium
528
Perilous state of Italy
529
Insurrections in Bologna Modena Reggio and Parma
530
Intervention of Austria in Italy
532
Entry of the Austrians into Bologna and suppression of the insurrection ib 29 Affairs of Germany and precautionary measures there
533
Defensive measures in Austria
534
State of feeling in Prussia
535
Great fermentation in the lesser states of Germany
536
Troubles in Saxony and HesseCassel
538
Tumult in the church of St Germain lAuxerrois
547
Change in the Electoral Law
553
The Kings progresses into Normandy and Champagne
559
Vast effects of the reform in Scotland and Ireland
560
Reasons which led them to support the Belgians
565
Commencement of hostilities and position and forces on the two sides
571
The French compel the submission of the Portuguese government
577
Violent scene in the Chamber on the debate on Poland
584
Vehement excitement in Paris on the fall of Warsaw
585
Bloody law against the Bourbons
586
Speech of M Pagès against the law
587
Striking speech of M de Martignac which causes the rejection of the clause
588
Question of the abolition of the hereditary peerage
589
9195 Argument for the abolition 590593
590
96101 Answer of the defenders of the peerage 594598
594
The Lower House pass the bill by a great majority
598
Creation of peers to force it through the Upper House where it passes
599
Reflections on this event
600
Previous degradation of the hereditary peerage
601
Experience of Great Britain in regard to a hereditary peerage
602
Reason of the superiority in general of the aristocracy as statesmen
603
niin identified with 109 Importance of the interests of the hereditary peers being identified with 60
605
CHAPTER XXVI
606
Causes of this perpetual strife
607
Opposite sources of their strength and weakness
608
Disastrous effects of the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by the Turks and of the partition of Poland
609
Sin of Europe in the partition of Poland
610
Vast increase of the power of Russia from the partition of Poland
611
Faults of the Poles which led to their subjugation ib 8 It was the impatience of taxation which ruined Poland
612
Mysterious connection between Poland and the cause of democracy
614
Prosperity of Poland under the Russian rule from 1815 to 1830
615
This prosperity increased the passion for independence
616
Secret societies in Poland
617
Different plans of the conspirators
618
Original plan which proved abortive
619
Supineness of Constantine and progress of the conspiracy ib 16 Insurrection of 29th November at Warsaw
620
Rapid progress of the insurrection and retreat of Constantine from Warsaw
621
Appointment of a provisional government
622
First act of the new government and negotiation with Constantine
623
Constantine sends back the Polish troops and retreats into Russia
624
Enthusiasm on the arrival of the Polish troops in Warsaw
625
Chlopicki seizes the dictatorship
626
his biography and character
627
His views in regard to the revolution
628
Unsuccessful negotiations with Nicholas
630
Menacing proclamation and vast preparations of the Czar
637
Statistics of the strength of Russia at this period
643
Position and forces on the opposite sides
649
Parallel of Grochow and Sieroczyn with Inkermann and Balaklava
655
Skrzyneckis brilliant success in the centre
661
Bad success of Sierawiki on the right
667
Battle of Ostrolenka
673
Death of Diebitch and the Grandduke Constantine
675
Suspension of hostilities of the two armies and appointment of Paskiewitch to the command
676
Insurrection in Lithuania and final defeat of Gielgud
677
Battle of Wilna and defeat of the Poles
678
Desperate state of the Poles and plan of Paskiewitch
679
Paskiewitchs plans and forces and preparations of the Poles
680
Paskiewitch crosses the Vistula
681
Fall of Skrzynecki who is succeeded by Dembinski
682
Massacres in Warsaw
683
Preparations and forces on both sides for the final struggle
684
Victory of Ramorino over Rosen and Golowin ib 89 Assault of Warsaw
685
Vain attempt at negotiation
686
Fall of Warsaw
687
The remainder of the Polish troops take refuge in Austria and Prussia
688
Kesults of the war to both parties
689
Conduct of Nicholas in Poland after the war and in the cholera 95 Reflections on the fall of Poland
690
Excess of democracy in Poland ruined everything
691
Unity of the East is its strength divisions of the West its weakness
692
Restoration of Poland essential to independence of Europe
693

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