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it lacks prosperous manufacturing industries. The wealth of Austria-Hungary is supposed to be only one-third of that of Germany. By acquiring the South German States and Silesia the State of the Habsburgs would both politically and economically regain its old paramountcy. Austria-Hungary would become an almost purely German State organised on a federal basis, and if the Habsburgs should act tolerantly and liberally towards the neighbour States, the Austrian Federation might be joined in course of time by some of the secondary States which will arise after the present war in the South-east of Europe.

In the south, Austria possesses two almost purely Italian districts : the Italian Tyrol, with towns such as Trento, Rovereto, Ala, Bondo, Borgo, &c., and the western part of Istria and a narrow strip of the Adriatic coast with Trieste, Pola, Fiume, Capodistria, Zara, Sebenico, Spalato, Ragusa, Cattaro, &c. The names of the towns mentioned show their Italian origin. The possession of the Italian Tyrol is a matter of vital importance to Italy. The great and wealthy plain of Lombardy is protected towards the north by a crescent of mountain walls, the Alps. Italy is protected by that powerful barrier against invasion from France and Switzerland. But by retaining the Italian Tyrol, the Trentino, after withdrawing from Italy, and by occupying the mountain passes down to the foot of the mountains as far as the Lago di Garda, Austria occupies with her army a wide breach in Italy's ramparts. Thus she can easily invade the country and strike at Verona, Padua, and Venice by marching to the east, or at Brescia and Milan by turning to the west. While the east coast of Italy is flat and open, the opposite coast of the Adriatic, occupied by Austria, is studded with an abundance of excellent natural harbours, the entrance to which is protected by high mountains and by mountainous islands lying in front of it.

The positions occupied by Austria in the Trentino, in Istria, and in Dalmatia threaten Italy's security in the north and east, and Italy is all the more reluctant to see them remaining in Austria's hands, as they are largely inhabited by Italians, who are very badly treated by the Austrians. Possibly the disastrous fire at the Monfalcone dockyard, which took place soon after the outbreak of the Great War, was caused by the resentment of the ill-treated Italians who live in Austrian territory. Many of these unfortunate people, although born in Austrian territory, are not allowed to acquire Austrian citizenship, and not infrequently they are expelled without notice from their homes without adequate reason. Ever since 1866 the Austrians have persecuted the Italians dwelling in Austria, and have endeavoured to destroy their nationality by deny. ing them schools, colleges, and a university. Apparently the Austrians have tried to punish the Italians who have remained under their rule for the loss of Lombardy and Venetia.

Owing to Austria's foolish policy, Italy has been filled with the bitterest hatred against the Austrians. The Irredenta Italia, Unredeemed Italy, is in the thoughts of every patriotic Italian, and frequent Austrian outrages on Italians living in Austria, on the one hand, and Italian passionate agitation in favour of their brothers who live under the Austrian yoke, on the other, keep the wound open. Many Italian societies and newspapers have been preaching war with Austria for many years. Signor Pellegrini wrote in his important book, ‘Verso la Guerra ? Il dissidio fra l'Italia e l'Austria,' published as long ago as 1906 :

I believe we cannot live any longer under an illusion which deceives us. We have lived under the impression that the internal difficulties of Austria-Hungary are so great as to prevent her from aggressive action towards ourselves and from expansion towards the east. We have believed that Austria-Hungary would fall to pieces after the death of the present Emperor. These views are erroneous. If the political crisis in Austria-Hungary should become more acute, and there is reason for doubting this, Austria-Hungary's need to expand and to acquire new markets in the east will become all the greater. And as long as Italian commerce pursues its triumphant course in the east, the more are the opposing interests of the two nations likely to bring about the final collision. ..

We cannot continue a policy of vassalage which will compromise for all time Italy's future in order to preserve the outward form of the Triple Alliance. We must ask ourselves : What are our interests ? Are we ready to defend them? What are the conditions of the Italians who dwell on the shore of the Adriatic under foreign domination ? What are our interests on the Adriatic compared with those of Austria ? What are the wishes of our people, and what is Italy's mission in the Balkan Peninsula ? Is it possible to avoid a conflict with Austria ? I believe I have shown that Austria-Hungary is at the same time our ally and our open enemy against whom we must prepare for war. . We have to calculate in the future with the fact that the Austro-Hungarian Empire, though nominally our ally, is our determined enemy in the Balkan Peninsula.

Many similar views may be found in the writings of Enrico Corradini, Salvatore Barzilai, Vico Mantegazza, Giovanni Bertacchi, Innocenzo Cappa, Romeo Manzoni, Filippo Crispolti, Scipio Sighele, Luigi Villari, and many others, in the publications of the 'Società Dante Aligheri, the Trento Trieste,' the 'Giovine Europa,' the Italica Gens,' and in periodicals such as Il Regno, l'Italia all' Estero, Il Tricolore, La Grande Italia. The Austrians have replied to the Italian threats with counter-threats. The Oesterreichische Rundschau,' the most important Austrian periodical, which is edited by Freiherr von Chlumecky, an intimate friend of the late Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and Danzer's Armeezeitung, the widely read army journal, have published innumerable articles recommending an Austrian war with Italy.

On the walls of the Ducal Palace at Venice may be found some marble tablets giving the result of a plebiscite taken in the year 1866 in Venetia. They tell us that

641,000 of the inhabitants voted for a reunion of Venetia with Italy, and only 68 against it. Austria has never known how to gain the affection of the people over whom she has ruled. She occupied Venetia from 1815 to 1866. In fifty-one years she gained among the inhabitants 68 adherents and 641,000 enemies. If to-day a plebiscite should be taken in the Italian Tyrol, in Trieste, Pola, and the other Italian towns on the Dalmatian coast, 'the result would probably be similar. At one time or another Verona, Venice, Milan, Florence, Turin, Naples, Palermo, Lombardy, Venetia, Toscana, the southern half of Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia-in fact, practically all Italy, except the States of the Church—were Austrian, but nowhere in Italy will a man be found who regrets Austria's departure or who speaks of her occupation with affection, or even with esteem. In Italy, as elsewhere, Austria has solely been an influence for evil.

Although Trieste, Pola, and Fiume, and part of Istria and Dalmatia are inhabited by many Italians, it is by no means certain that these towns and districts will revert to Italy after a defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Ports and coastal positions are of value because of the hinterland which furnishes them with trade. Large inland States lying near the coast have the strongest claims upon natural outlets towards the ocean. The Italian towns on the east coast of the Adriatic are ancient Venetian trading stations, and behind and around them live about 10,000,000 Serbs in compact masses, the Serbians in Serbia proper, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Dalmatia, and the Serbo-Croats in Croatia-Slavonia. The Italians cannot expect that a Greater Serbia will consent to be deprived of adequate harbours. Italian and Serbian claims will have to be barmonised.

Serbia does not intend seizing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dalmatia, and Croatia-Slavonia by force; but if these lands are dissatisfied with Austrian rule, and wish to shake it off and unite with Serbia, the Serbs will certainly not deny them. The Serbians in Serbia have been ill-treated in the past by Austria, as has been shown in another part of this chapter. Ever since the Russo-Turkish War, AustriaHungary, covetous of Serbia's territory, has endeavoured to ruin that country by preventing her gaining an outlet to the sea, by controlling her foreign trade overland and by arbitrarily interrupting and destroying it by closing the frontier against Serbia under mendacious pretexts. In 1885 the Austrians brought about war between Serbia and Bulgaria for their own ends. They favoured the outbreak of the first Balkan War, hoping for Serbia's destruction. When the Allies were victorious, Austria-Hungary prevented Serbia securing the smallest outlet on the sea, and then encouraged Bulgaria to attack that country, hoping that the second Balkan War would lead to Serbia's downfall. Having suffered so much at Austria's hands in the past, the heroic Serbians wish to make themselves secure for the future by establishing a Greater Serbia, a State of 10,000,000 inhabitants, at Austria's cost, and obtaining adequate outlets to the sea. Probably they will succeed. Their heroism and their sufferings deserve a full reward.

Of the territory of Hungary, 105,811 square kilometres contain a population of which 77.61 per cent. are Magyars, 85,026 square kilometres have a population of which only 25-63 per cent. are Magyars, and 74:32 per cent. non-Magyars. Of these, the majority are Slavs. Of the population of the remaining territory of 88,650 square kilometres, 25.09 per cent. are Magyars, while the majority are Roumanians. Of the whole of Hungary, four-tenths are essentially Magyar territory, three-tenths are essentially Slavonic territory, and three-tenths are Roumanian territory.

In a table given in the beginning of this article, the strength of the Magyars in Hungary was stated to be 10,051,000, according to the census of 1910. This figure is greatly exaggerated. In order to swell their numbers, the Magyars have manipulated the census. The citizens are asked, in the census forms which they have to fill up,

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