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To the Editor of the European Magazine. a succession of objects crowd upon the

sir, Penryn, Cornwall, July 2,1818. eye, in every respect dissimilar and dis. H AVING finished my last letter to cordant, yet affording the highest de

you with the account of Illogan, light. in this county, I now resume my pen,

The sale of coal is as extensive here after the lapse of many, months, to give as at Portrealb. you what further remarks I made on Copper ore, previous to its being the scenery and objects I saw in my transported 10 Wales, undergoes con. jaunt through these western parts. At siderable preparation, which miners call the westeru end of the bank of white dressing, parlly on the mine, and partly and beautiful sand, which takes its rise at stamping mills ; that part of the ore pear the parish of Illogan, and continues dressed on the mine is of the best

qua. its course through Gwithian and Phil. lity, the most solid of which is bruised lack, already dtscribed, stands Hayle by sledges, by a process they call spala Copper-bouse, where the river of that ling, and bucking and cobbing ; 'the dame pours its mineral stream into the first operation is performed ocar the

This place, within the last half shaft where it is raised, by men ; the century, is become a place of consi. Jatter by women under perl-houses, derable commerce: here is a company' who pound it on iron plaies, or hard formed for smelting copper ore.

This rocks, with a sort of iron mallet, to company made trial of a question, which the consistence of gravel. In some occupied the attention of miners inuch, cases, where the ore is raised in a small when mining was in its infancy; whe. gravelly dry state, it is passed through ther it was more advantageous for the an iron wire sieve ; the belter part of smelter to carry his copper ore to the which is fit for immediate sale, withcoal, or to bring the coal to tho cop out further preparation, the coarser per: the majority of smelting houses part is washed and picked, and then having taken their station on the oppo

vucked. The halvan or refuse, together site side of the channel, and there being with the less friable ore, is sent io the only one on this side of the water, stamping. mills, which are worked by whilst the elever on the other side seems water wheels, or steam engines ; the to determine the question in favour of mill itself is composed of three slamp carrying the copper ore to the coal. beads of iron, from three boudred and a

The exchange of coal and copper en half to four hundred weight each, which gages an active communication by ship are affixed to as many poles, and worked piog between this place and Wales, as it by an axle and cogs set in motion by does with Portrcalh.

the wheels. Steam nills have eighteen Hayle presents to the tourist a very beads of the sanie description ; a man is active and agreeable stene: a fine nat of provided to supply the mill with halvan, sand of several miles' extent, forined and to altend to the working of it. by the lide, affords a pleasant ride When it is pounded sufficiently small, for equestrians; though care is' neces. and washed as clean as possible from sary lo avoid the quick sands, which are the earth with which it was combined, nuinerous on the right of your jour. it is carried back and sold with other ney towards Penzance.

The scenery

orcs at the mine. The manner in which is rendered highly interesting by the

the sale is conducted in this : the ore shipping wbichi lime the mouth of the is divided into different piles according river, a large sluice wbich pours a to its quality (some, however, mix all rapid and roaring food low water, their ores promiscuously, about twenty down the course of the river, to deepen or thirty tons each, which they call the channel, and squadrons of mules doles. A day is then fisted for same passing and repassing, employed to con. pling, which is monthly : the samplers vey coal to the mines and bring back assembled (for each company keeps a copper ores to the port: with cum. sampler), two men are prepared with broos lighters scattered here and there shovels to make a trench through each for the conveyance of coal up to the pile or dole, when the samplers collect guays which surround this fat. Coming a little bere and a little there, they out of a cily where your view is bound put it on an iron plate, where they ed by bouses, and clouded by smoke, pound it very small, when ench sampler you feel quite alive, new sensibilities fills a small canvass bag, and carries it seem to enter the soul, and you are to the essay-master of the company, as one transported into a region where · who having ascertained the quantiig Furop. Mag. Vol. LXXIV. Aug.1818.

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of fiue copper a given quautily of ore 28. 6d. in the pound for the ore dis. produces, finds the value of a ton of ore, covered. At other times, when the ore and makes his offer accordingly. This is in sight, he receives from 6d. to they do with great accuracy; though 105. , without any consideration for ' sometimes impositions are attempted breaking the ground, according to the by the tributers, who raise the ore apparent value of the ore : sometimes, at a poundage, accordiog to the rich when they have contracted at a conness of the lode, by prilling the sam siderable poundage, it has been known, ple, or droppiog very rich bits of cop that miuers have realized from 2001 per from the sleeves of their coats into to 4001. in the course of a fortnight, the sainple as they pound it: but this which often lays the foundation of seldom escapes detection; and the of wealth in families. But this only bapfenders are sure of being punished. peus where success is attended by pru

After all this is done, the copper ore dence. Their labour is attended with is sold, at what is called a ticketting, danger, from the use of gunpowder where the copper company agents meet to blast the rocks, their ascending and the mine agents, with the prices they descending to and from their labour nican to offer previously written on by Jadders, the decay of the prope tickets, which gives name to the sale under ground, the breaking of kibbals itself. They take their stations on (or buckets), stones falling, and various chairs around a large table, with a other accidents, that must naturally chairman at the head; to whom each atteod labour prosecuted so deep upcompany haods, through their agent, der the surface, where materials are their ticket, numbered 1, 2, 3, &c. constantly exposed to decay from the according to the seniority of the com wet, and other accidents that cannot pany from their formation; each ticket be provided against by any foresighat

. is read in this order by the chairmiao, Miners are a short-lived race; they are and the parcel of ore sold to the highest peculiarly subject to asthma and colbidder: when the saine price is offered sumptions, from breathing mineral airs by two bidders, the elder company has in their employment, and seldom exceed the preference. After the sale, mules the age of fifty. Boys of six or sereu aod' carts are employed to bring it years commence their career as miners down, by the agents of the respective at the stamping-mills and buddle; the companies, to their depots at this place buddle being a small pit, seven feet or Portreath, these being the only long and three wide, tbrough which ports, on the north coast, from which a sinall stream of water runs, where copper is exported to Wales. Like they place the balvan ore after it is most other manufacturies, the mines stamped, and stir it with a shovel, employ all ages, inen, women, and chil to facilitate the fall of the ore to the dren : men with a small proportion bottom, whilst the same process pro. of boys work the mines and break the motes the ascent of the lighter earths ore. The facility of pursuing the pro. to the top to be carried off by the water. cess of discovering and working the The best of the ore thus washed lies at ground in search and raising of ores, the head of the buddle, the poorest at is in proportion to the hardness of the the end. The same process is fol. ground, through which they prosecute lowed, with little variation, in wasbing their labour : much is performed by tin. blasting with gunpowder, and much The occupation of women in prewith the pick and gad, the latter being paring copper ore is by cobbing and a small iron wedge well-tempered to bucking, though they employ girls in sever rocks in their joints. Their labour washing and picking it. They give an is chiefly task, or contract, with a air of cheerfulness to labour, accompoundage, by the fathom ; thus a pas. panying the ring of their hammers with sage six foot high, and three or four some love ditty or national song, which wide, which is called an end or an adit, by ils wildoess and sweetness rivals, in is to be driven through the earth, 20, my opinion, the Italian squall and trill 100, or 200 fathoms under the surface, of Catalani herself, after whom our poin search of ore, or to carry off the bility and gentry, some little while water : the miner's contract is 51. since, were running mad, for po other 61. or even 101. or 201. per fathom, reason than because she was an Itaaccording to the hardness of the ground; lian, and it was the fashion to admire sometimes with the addition of 1s. or her.

It is very perceptible, their note ac- sented, than the miner, by tourists, sta. celerates and sweetens labour, for the tistical writers, or religious journal. louder they sing, the faster and more ists. John Wesley's accounts of them sedulously they work : they compose a are little better than a libel; this his motley group: some with patched bed- journalists continue to do, to cubance gowns, pieced in all the varied co. their conversion amongst them. They Tours of the rainbow, make it difficult are a fine race of men, with quick apto ascertain the original texture or co- prehensions, and possess minds susJour of the pristine garment:-wbilst ceptible of the niost generous afteeothers lie about in all the tatterdemal- tions. In character, they resemble vur Jion of rags and negligent indifference sailors; and if they carn their money of dress ; others again are careful of with great hazard and personal exerdressing according to the precisest cos. tion, they as thoughtlessis spend it. tume of the day, with a fashionable In times of dearth, ibey exhibit occashape, short waists, and short sleeves ; sionally a riotous disposition; but when with hair buckled up in the stiffest the cause has been removed, they quietly curl: they carefully guard their necks return to their occupations. Severe against burning of the sun by large hunger stirs up the most uncontrollable neckkerchiefs tied loosely round them, passions; and the man whose daily prothough they are not always equally vision is supplied in luxurious abunfortunate to preserve their persons from dance, is incapable of knowing the an. copper browning. On Sundays they ex ger and despair that scarcity will pro. hibit their smartest attire, white gowns, duce in the famishing inmates of an straw bonnets decked off in knots and hungry cottage. bows of ribbons, unless here and there As you cross the mouth of Hayle you obserre a demure sister of the River, you catch a very pleasing view Wesleyan persuasion in a poke honnet, of the borough of St. Ives, which of with no decoration in the way of knot a fine day looks pretty; it stands at or bow, as they hold it an abomina. the foot of a range of hills, which run in tion: but let it not be supposed that a south-westerly direction from this these are negligent of appearances ei- place. On the top of these hills a ther, they are as studious of copying gentleman of rather a whimsical turn the costume of their own ritual, as thougbl proper to fix for his buryingo the arrantest belle is the fashions of the place; so singular a determination is day. The women in general are hand- not easy to be accounted for ;-perhaps some and well-proportioned: though the gentleman migbt have thought the it is to be deplored, that their early whole quite o joke when surveyed in the occupation at the mines does not coui. hayis-gaily days of youth, with death at tribute to make them always good bouse. a distance; yet as it drew nearer, he wives. The patient and solitary pro. surveyed it in a inore serious point of gress of sewing and knitting and spine view, and altered his intention, and had ping are relinquished for the social' la- bis bones lodged safely in consecrated bour of the mines. Man, for the most ground. It could not bave arisen from part, is a social animal, and fond of infidelity, for he has inscribed two of the herding with his species, and women most momentous articles of the Chris. inheriling his nature, are organized tian creed on it; the side facing the east with the same disposition and feelings. is inscribed with Resurgam, on the west Did ball-maids (the tille by which they with “I know that my Redeemer live are usually designated) pay greater at etb :" bis preferring to deposit his tention to the household deities, it remains in a churcb-yard, is evidently would improve the condition of their the result of maturer reflection. The bomes, and make their husbands fouder spire, with a stone coffin designed for of them: yet still it must not be con his burying-place, remains, and forms a cluded but that many is the laudable good sea-mark, being built with that exceplion; as many of their habita- durable granite which abounds in Corn. tions are so neat and well managed, wall. By his will, he has bequeathed an that the most fastidious of our gentry estate to perpetuate his incmory by a may feel no disparagement to enter dance round it, every five years, of ien and take their repasts in them: for girls under the age of fourteen, avd an neater dwellings I dever saw, thau are old woman, who assists in the cere. some of them. No character has been mony to preserve decorum: the whole less understood, or more misrepre. is closed witb a boat-race and a dinner.

I do not think it fair to question the a worthy representative: and to Gomotives of men, however extravagant, vernment one highly distinguished if not attended by any injurious result. statesman, whose name is associated Vanity is often a poweriul principle of with Marlborough in an administraaction : perhaps some of our best insti. tion, equally distinguished with that tutions arise in a inotive no better. of the Wellesleys of the present day, The man who builds an hospital or in curbing the exorbitant ambition of founds a seminary of learning is build. France. The remains of the old man. ing a monuinent to band down his name sion mark sufficiently its departed con. to posterity, as he thinks ; and un sequence and hospitality: the old hall

, doubtedly he has as good pretensione with its four oak iables, in four angular to fame as be who wins a battle or rules compartments, point out where once a senate.

stood the smoking sirloins and substan. Aropnd the extensive flat, which I tial rounds of beef, and good strong have attempted to delineate, are several nut-brown ale : but now good cheer Lowos and villages, and some soug boxes and merriment are banished, and noand churches.

thing but ineagre economy, and screechAmong the latler stands Lelant, a owls and bats tenant the deserted chamvery pleasing feature in the landscape, bers: copsigued to the paring and parsion a sand-bank, preserved from being monious pinching of stewards and under. overwhelmed, by the common preven liage, the place is no longer capable of tive of planting rushes. It is a fine regaling iis tenantry: The frippery of shell, the roof supported by large massy French manners and French cookery Saxva columns; and the walls, pene. have long since superseded English bostrated by every description of Gothic pitality and plain English fare; and windows, denote, by ibeir mixed ør now, instead of seeing the halls of our ders, a bigher date in architectural nobility and gentry filled with their antiquity than

the peighbouring tenants, you see their place supplied churches afford.

by powdered, silver-laced lacqueys, in A little further on, at the foot of a costume almost designed to caricaa hill, called Torcroven, which rises ture our species. The state bed-room, suddenly and boldly from its base, in which it was said the unfortunate slands "Trevethow, the seat of the Charles once slept, shewed with pride Praeds, a pretty box, much embel- by the sedulous domestics, bas dislished by the father of the present geo- appeared, together with the park, ball, tleinan.' but now, with its paddock and and good cheer, and “ Like the basegroupds, abandoned to the inevitable less fabric of a vision, leaves not a ruin of time and desertiop. Its pos- wreck behind." The bravery of Sir sessor is,

Francis Godolphin is recorded by one

of the oldest and best historians of Dives posilis in fænore nummis!

Cornwall, in repelling the invasion of Ils overlooking Hayle river at high wa. the Spaniards in the reign of Queen ter has an enchanting effect; the morn Elizabeth, who juflicted unnecessary ing that secs its surface covered with and wanton vengeance on the fishing troops of mules, carts, and travelling towns of Mousehole apd Newlyp. carriages, in the afternoon scesitcovered Cruelty and intolerance are ever ihe with vessels of light burthen, boats, attendants of bigotry: Catholics are and lighiers: this variety is one ofile not changed: the support that they pleasing effects of an æstuary whose have found amongst our Jacobinical scene is ever shifting and new. Whigs is not so extraordinary, when

A few miles to the south of this, one recollects, that power in the hands two bills of conical structure exalt their of democrats, despois, and Catholics, heads in the air with majestic sub has invariably been converted into limity : as you approach them, some lyranny, and the destruction of the scattered trees remain lo inform the human species. The sight of an old traveller of its heing once the seat family mavsion mouldering into ruin, of hospitality and distinction. The awakens very unplcasant sensations: name of Godolphio awakeys many pleas. it reminds us of the justability of all ing recollections in the minds of the sublunary things : but it is realig to be natives: their family held distinguished lameuted for one consideration in par: Consequence in this county: and gave ticular, which affects our nobility and to the borongbs in the vicinity many gealry, the loss of thut ipfiuence wbich

gives order and regularity to those Paradise of the West, Mount's Bay's parts where their property is situated; in whatever view surveyed, its beauty ibey ought to be the source of cha- is unrivalled. In scenery, the essential rity and order. Where rents are ex. quality of this bay is beauty, though acted with an unsparing hand, and this when acted upon by a tempest, it apthrough the hands of stewards who have proaches to the sublime. Its form from no power to pay back any part of it in the sea-side is semicircular; its shores good cheer or acts of favour, such as from the land-side gradually slope down tenants have a right to expect, breaks to the water's edge. On the eastern side a link in the chain of dependence: they stands Marazion(whicb I have previously lose their influence amongst their le alluded to, as the mart formerly of our nantry, and some neighbouring demo- tin trade with the Phenicians, Jews, and crat will be sure to cajole them into his Romans), in immediate contact with St. party : as soon as this is effected, the Michael's Mount : on the opposite, commonalty will be desirous of new which is the westero side, stand Mousemaslers. Will our nobility never learn bole, Newlyn, and Penzance: each a lesson from the French Revolution ? place having derived to itself conseWill the disorganization, murder, pil. quence, at different periods, from its lage, and assassination, exemplified in fisheries. Penzance, at present, is by that devoted country, and all the hellish far the most considerable place in the abominations practised There by an in- bay, and enjoys a corporation, and furiate rabble, never teach them wis. a coinage for tin, and is much fredom? Had they wisdon), they might quenied by invalids, and those who feel recollect, that their interest could not pleasure in breathing a soft and salu. be better consulted, than by spending a brious atmosphere, after inhaling the portion of their time with their tepapiry mepbitic air of our metropolis. The in the country, and distributing some scenery' around is encbanting; its garpart of that wealth they received from dens produce the earliest fruit, its fields their estates in hospitality and cha- the earliest crops of potatoes ; which its rity, which they now indiscreetly lavish climate, from its mildness, is propitious on the vainest and cruellest people in to their being planted when other parts Europe, who are their bitleresi ene. are covered with snow: ils markets are mies, and can never be on cordial terms replenished with the best fish of every with England, or any thing that be kind. St. Michael's Mount stands prelongs to ber. I understand Breage, in eminent in tbe bay, whether as an obconsequence of the loss of the Godolphin ject for the delighied eye to rest upon, family, has become one of the most dis- or for retirement and meditation : and orderly parishes in the west of Cornwall, it is no wonder that religion should being noted for WRECKERS, a lawless have sought seclusion here : the brain, rabble, who are active in frequenting oppressed with the continual din of ships in distress, and plundering the cities, the rolling of carriages, and the defenceless at their greatest need, who buz and bum of venders of all kinds have the strongest claim on the hu. of wares; the oppositions and wrang. manily and protection of all reason. lings excited by clashing interests ; able people. The ancient mansion of the cupidity of man urging to the most Godolpbio stands at the foot of a very lawless impositions by day and the most bigh bill of that name ; another hill violent depredations by night; render a immediately connected with it is called place like this, the seat of peace and Tregoning; these form the highest land quiet, particularly inviting : here you in the West, and are the first objects can be at peace with all the world, if seen by ships coming up the channel. can be at peace with your own Oo Tregoning bill is a circular Roman restless self. The majesty and innate fort, surrounded by a Vallum of loose grandeur of the scene fills the mind sloues : : a little while since, some cope with the most agreeable associations. per coins of Antoninus were found in It was here, where once chanted the the Vallum, which decides beyond religious recluse his matins and ves. doubt the station to have been Roman. pers, and tbe baron buckled on his Its commanding situation during last armour and prepared for the contest; war was with great propriety fixed upon for in the varying changes and chances as a

of this life, it has been bolh the seat of On the west side of these hills, you religion and arms. Nor, in an age command a most beautiful view of that when the world is divided between

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