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divided and intrenched on the opposite sides of the 1813. river. The fire was promptly returned, and the rear- May. admiral pushed on shore with the marines; but, the instant the american militia observed them fix their British

land bayonets, they fled to the woods, and were neither seen nor heard of afterwards. All the houses, destroy excepting those whose owners had continued peace- &c. ably in them and taken no part in the attack, were forthwith destroyed; as were four vessels lying in the river, together with some stores of sugar, of lumber, of leather, and other merchandise. On this occasion, five of the British were wounded. One of the Americans, who entreated to have his property saved, wore military gaiters; and had, no doubt, assisted at the firing upon the British. Agreeably to his request, however, his property was left untouched.

On his way down the river, the rear-admiral visited Land a town situated on a branch of it. Here a part of other the inhabitants actually pulled off to him; and, town requesting to shake hands, declared he should ex- well reperience no opposition whatever. The rear-admiral ceived. accordingly landed, with the officers, and, chiefly out of respect to his rank, a small personal guard. Among those that came to greet him on his landing, were observed two inhabitants of George-town. These men, as well as an inhabitant of the place who had been to George-town to see what was going on, had succeeded in persuading the people to adopt, as their best security, a peaceable demeanour. Having ascertained that there were no warlike stores nor public property, and obtained, upon payment of the full value, such articles as were wanted, the rear-admiral and his party reembarked. Soon afterwards a deputation was sent from Charlestown, on the north-east river, to assure the rearadmiral, that the place was considered as at his mercy; and, similar assurances coming from other places in the upper part of the Chesapeake, the rear


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1813. admiral and his light squadron retired from that June. quarter.

Persons in England may find it difficult to consider,

as soldiers, men neither embodied nor dressed in ameri- regimentals. That circumstance has not escaped can un- the keen discernment of the american government.

Hence the British are so often charged, in proclamilitia. mations and other state-papers, with attacking the

“ inoffensive citizens of the republic.” The fact is,
every man in the United States, under 45 years of
age, is a militiaman; and, during the war, attended
in his turn, to be drilled or trained. He had
always in his possession either a musket or a rifled-
barrel piece; knew its use from his infancy; and
with it, therefore, could do as much execution in a
smock frock or plain coat, as if he wore the most
splendid uniform. These soldiers in citizens' dresses
were the men whom rear-admiral Cockburn so fre-
quently attacked and routed ; and who, when they
had really acted up to the character of non-com-
batants, were invariably spared, both in their

and properties. The rear-admiral wished them, for
their own sakes only, to remain neutral; but general
Hull, in his famous proclamation, prepared with so
much care at Washington, invited the canadian
people to become open traitors to their country;
and visited, upon the heads of those that refused, all
“the horrors and calamities of war."

On the 12th of June the boats of the 18-pounder cissus 32-gun frigate Narcissus, captain John Richard capture Lumley, containing about 40 men, under the comveyor. mand of lieutenant John Cririe, first of that ship, and

of lieutenant of marines Patrick Savage, were
despatched up York river, in the Chesapeake, to cut
out the United States' schooner Surveyor, mounting
six 12-pounder carronades. Captain Samuel Travis,
the american commander, had furnished each of his
men with two muskets; and they held their fire until
the British were within pistol-shot. The Americans

Boats of Nar

then opened; but the boats pushed on, and finally 1813. carried the vessel by boarding, with the loss of three June. men killed, and six wounded. Captain Travis had five men wounded. His crew amounted to only 16; and so gallant was their conduct, as well as that of their commander, in the opinion of lieutenant Cririe, that that officer returned captain Travis his sword, accompanied by a letter, not less complimentary to him, than creditable to the writer.

Admiral Warren, who had quitted the Chesapeake Return for Bermuda, returned to his command early in June, John bringing with him, according to newspaper-account, Warren a detachment of battalion-marines, 1800 strong, 300 Chesaof the 102d regiment, 250 of the Independent peake Foreigners, or canadian chasseurs, and 300 of the Berroyal marine-artillery; total 2650 men. On the 18th muda. of June the Junon frigate anchored in Hampton roads, and captain Sanders despatched his boats to capture or destroy any vessels that might be found at the entrance of James river. Commodore John Cassin, the naval commanding officer at Norfolk, observing this, directed the 15 gun-boats at that station to be manned with an additional number of seamen and marines from the Constellation frigate, then moored at the navy-yard, also with 50 infantry from Craney island, and despatched them under the command of captain Tarbell, to attempt the capture or destruction of the Junon.

It was not till about 4 P. M. on the 20th, that this Ameformidable flotilla, armed with upwards of 30 guns, gun. half of which were long 32 and 24 pounders, and boats manned with, at least, 500 men, commenced its an inattack upon the Junon, then lying becalmed. Cap- elec tain Sanders warmly returned their fire with his attack long 18-pounders, hoping that they would soon venture to approach within reach of his carronades. Junon This the gun-boats carefully avoided; and, between frigate. them and the frigate, a distant cannonade, very slightly injurious to either party, was maintained for about three quarters of an hour. A breeze now




Norfolk and


1813. sprang up; which enabled the 18-pounder 36-gun
June. frigate, Barrosa, captain William Henry Shirreff,

and the 24-gun ship Laurestinus, captain Thomas
Graham, lying about five miles off

, to get under way,
in the hope to have a share in the amusement. The
Junon, also, was at this time under sail, using her
best efforts to give a more serious complexion to the
contest; but commodore Cassin, who, as he assures
us, was in his boat during the whole of the action,
considering that the flotilla had done enough to
entitle him to display both his fighting, and his epis-
tolary, qualifications, very prudently ordered the
15 gun-boats to make the best of their way back to

The appearance of the two frigates and sloop in

Hampton roads soon brought to Norfolk and its Hamp- vicinity as many as 10000 militia; and the works, inforc- recently constructed there, were all manned, ready

for defending that important post. At Hampton,
also, a militia force had assembled; and batteries
were erecting, in case that town should prove the
object of attack. On the 20th of June 13 sail of
british ships, consisting of three 74s, a 64 armée en
flute, four frigates, and five sloops, transports, and
tenders, lay at anchor, the nearest within seven, the

furthest off within 13, miles of Craney island. An istand. assemblage of boats at the sterns of several of the

ships, on the afternoon of that day, gave no very
unequivocal notice to the people on shore, that
some expedition was on foot. Accordingly, Craney
island being rather weakly manned, the commanding
officer at Norfolk sent 150 of the Constellation's
seamen and marines to a battery of 18-pounders on
the north-west, and about 480 Virginia militia to
reinforce a detachment of artillery stationed with
two 24 and four 6 pounders on the west, side of the
island. Captain Tarbell's 15 gun-boats were also
moored in the best position for contributing to the
defence of the post.

After two days' parade of boats and bustle among


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Unsuccessful attack upon

the british ships, a division of 17 or 18 boats, at day- 1813. light on the morning of the 22d, departed with about June. 800 men, under major-general Beckwith, round the point of Nansemond river, and landed them at a place called Pig's point, near to the narrow inlet separating the main from Craney island. Owing to Craney some error in the arrangements, unexpected obsta- by the cles presented themselves. An attack from that British quarter being therefore considered hopeless, and the position itself not tenable, the troops, in the course of the day, reembarked and returned to the squadron.

A second division of boats, 15 in number, containing a detachment of 500 men from the 102d regiment, canadian chasseurs, and battalion-marines, and about 200 seamen, the whole under the command of captain Samuel John Pechell, of the SanDomingo, arrived, at about 11 A. M., off the northwest side of the island, directly in front of the battery manned by the Constellation's men. Great difference of opinion prevailed among the officers engaged in the expedition, about the propriety of making the attack at that time of tide, it being then the ebb. Captains John Martin Hanchett, of the Diadem, the honourable James Ashley Maude, of the Nemesis, and Romilly of the engineers, were decidedly against it. Captain Pechell was for it; and he, being the senior officer, carried his point. ·Captain Hanchett then volunteered to lead the boats to the attack; which he was permitted to do. Captain Hanchett's boat was the Diadem's launch, carrying a 24-pounder carronade, the only boat so armed in the division. He had taken his station about 60 yards ahead of the other boats; and was pulling, under a very heavy and long-continued fire from the batteries, directly in front of them, when his boat unfortunately took the ground, at the distance of about 100 yards from the muzzles of the enemy's guns. At that instant one of the seamen, having plunged his boathook over the side, found three or four feet of slimy

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