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In 1634 also, Peter Herigone published pound pendulum of his own invențion. a Course of Mathematics, Cours de Ma. These went so well that for ten years they isinatiques, at Paris, in which he proposed. erred scarcely a fecond in a month. But ditterent methods of finding the longitude, as the motion of a penduium would nes but all inferior to Morin's.

cessarily be deranged by that of a ship at Nor muft we omit Leonard Duliris, sea, he set himself to make a watch, which, who published a sheury of the longitude in in a voyage to Lifbon and back again, 1647, which was criticised by Morin, who corrected an error of a degree and a half in tound little difficulty in displaying the the ship's reckoning. This was in 1736. author's ignorance of mathematics. After this be made two others, for the

In 1668, a German, whose name does latter of which, in 1745, he received from not occur to lis, invented an adometer, or the Royal Society Sir Godfrey Copley's instrument for ineasuring lip's way; and gold medal. With this time-keeper, his the fame of Louis XIV, as a pation of son, Mi, William Harrison, went to Ja. g=nius, induced him to present it to that maica, in 1761, on board his Majeity's king. A Committee of Academicians was hip Deptford, and it was found to deter. appointed to examine it, and it appears to mine the longitude of Port Royal, in that have had considerable merit, but it was illand, within five seconds of what it had liable to certain objections, which the in- before been ascertained to be by an obser. ventor was unable to reinove.

vation of the tranfit of Mercury in 1743. About this time, or a little earlier, Dr. It appeared also to bave erred but 1' 541 Hooke and Mr. Huygens made a very great during the whole voyage. This being iinprovement in waich-making, hy the within the limits prcicribed by the act, application of the penduluin (pring.' Dr. Mr. Harrison chained the reward of twen. Hooke having a quarrel with the English ty thousand pounds, Difficulties, howMinistry, nu trial was made of any of bis ever, were Started, and forme doubts raised, machines, though several were with thole about the nianner in which the longitude of Mr. Huygens. In a voyage from the had been ascertained, both at Jamaica and coast of Guinea, in the year 1665, one of at Portsmouth. Yet loon after five thou. them answered extremely well; but it was fand pounds were advanced him on acafterwards found that they were liable 10 count; and in 1764, Mr. William Har. confiderable variation from the action of rison made a voyage with the time-keeper heat and cold, so that they were of little use to Barbadoes. With hin were lent out by tur determining the longitude.

the Board priper persons to make observa: On the 20th of July 1714, an A&t of tions; and, in confequence of this proof, Parliament was published, by which twen· five thousand pounds inore were paid Mr. ty thousand pounds sterling were promised Harrison, on his discovering the principles to any one who should discover a method of its conitruction; with a promise ot the of finding the longitude at sea to half a other ten thoufand, as soon as machines degree or ten leagues; fifteen thousand, if conitructed by others, on the fame prin. within two-thirds of a degree ; and tenciples, should be found to answer equally it.ousand, if within a degree, or twenty well. leagues. At the same tine a Committee, Mr. Harrison having delivered up these named the Bard of Longitude, was ap- three time-keepers to the Board, Mr. pointed to ascertain the merit of any claim Kendal was employed to make another, made to these rewards. It may not be which was sent out with Captain Cook, in amits to obterve that this Act was framed his voyage round the world in 1772--3775. by Newton.

This was found to go even better than The same year, Henry Sully, an En. Mr. Harrison's, never erring quite 141 glithman, published a Imall' tract on seconds in a day. In consequence, Mr. watch-making at Vienna ; after which he Harrison received the remainder of the removed in Paris, and, encouraged by reward. A watch has since been conNewton, labeled assiduoully at the im- structed by Mr. Arnold, that, in a trial of provement of time-keepers for the disco. thirteen months, from February 1779 to very of the longitude, but death put a stop February 1780 inclusive, never varied to bis endeavours. By him was taught the thin 4' 1" a day, than famous Julian Leroy, who afterwards trod 6'69" in any two days; but this watch in his iteps.

was never at sea : and, indeed, in 1772, In 1726, Mr. John Harrison, who was Mr. Harrison had made another time. bred under his father a country carpenter, keeper, which at the end of a ten weeks' made two clocks, chiefly in wood, to trial, in the King's private observatory at which be applied an escapement and com. Richmond, had varied only 41".




But a French artist, Lewis Berthond, gning has been regularly verified by the the nephew of Ferdinand Berthond, for: fun and stars. Mr. Nouet began his exmurly celebrated in his art, has lately periments on the 14th of Much 1789. { one' beyond ali lvis predeceffors. The At first he exported in for nineteen-days to 3 tift voyage for the trial of marine watches temperature of about go of Reaumur : he undertaken from France was in 1767, then placed it in altove, where it was kept when M. de Courtenvaux fitted oui a fri- in a constant heat of 250 for a week; from gate at his own expence, to prore a time which ii was ieinoved for another week to } eeper conftructed by Peter Leroy, the fon

a teniperature of 17° 12'. During these of Julian, whom we have already usentien. three trials, the means of the daily variation t; and another voyage was made in was not more than a few hundredths of a 1768 by Mr. Caftii, to ascertain the ac second, and the greateft in any one day did curacy of the fame watch. In conie

not exceed two seconds; nor was there quence of Mr. Carlini's report, Leroy any appearance that the change of tempereceived a prize from the French Academy, rature had influenced in the least the going to obtain which his time piece had been of the watch. From the 6th of May to made: though it appeared, that even on the 12th of December the watch was land it advanced pretty suddenly 11” or exposed to the variations of the temperature 12" a-day sometimes, so that it was by 110 of the atmosphere with finilar relults. It nieans perfect.

may be objected that these trials were made The last watch we fhall have occafion to

on land, but Mi. de Puylegur has since mention is that of Mr. Lewis Berthond, made a voyage with it up the Mediterrawhich was tried at the Observatory, by Mr. nean, and has tound it no way affected by Nouet, one of the astronomers there, who the motion of the ship. compared it daily, for nine months, with

This watch, io fingularly accurate in the excellent pendulum conit, ucted by keeping time, very little exceeds two inches Ferdinand Berthond. This pendulum, and a quarter in diameter, whilft Harused in the astronomical obfervations, is rison's latt time-keeper is about lix inches. confidered as a chef d'auore, and its

Tlie gen

CHARACTER OF SAMUEL FOOTE, Esq. SA AMUEL FOOTE was a man of ge we could not help quickly corre Ering our.

mus, a dramatic writer, and a mimic. felves for such uncharitable ebullitions of His piternal fortune, which was more th:m mirth, becaufe they were fiequently at the competent to the wants of a prudent man,

expence of misfortune, personal deformity, was loon spent, and he had recourfe to friendship, and private worth. thole convivial talents and powers of ridi. tleman from whom the character of Cada cule, for support, which rendered his wallader was drawn, is fuid to have been Company generally sought, and had con once his intimate friend: and who can tributed, in a contiderable degree, to hear without in tignation, that those pecuinvolve him in pecuniary difficulty. It liarities and infirinities which Foote intro. was frequently olferved by him, sivat no duced on the stage, were observed and man ever knew the proper value of a copied at times devoted to convivial merri. guinea, tili he lived to wani one ; an obfer ment and domestic hospitality. varion not without truth, but even this ex This is not the first irittance, in ihe hiltory perience had not a proper efli et on Mr. of human vanity, where the feelings of á Foote.

fiiend have been violated, for the fake of Not being abl; at first to procure a li- saying a humorous or a witty thing. It çence for his dramaic entertainments at allo enforces a fentiment which has ofien the Hay-market, he advertised it as a place been repeated, that we ought not to look of resort for tea-drinking, and drew large for the foothing balm of Talling friendship ediences. He vicecistully lashed vicious or useful ffociation among persons elearetation, ftrange whim, 3nd perfona! vated in the regions of power, learning, peculiarity, by licentions diltertion, and wit

, or the arts: exceptions will undoubibroad caricature; while feltifaness, and edly sometimes occur, but ambition, like impofition, disguised in the denone exig- tentuality, is felfith, and not fcrupulous in rior of religion, and preended lanciiis, its manner of procuning gratification; and were ummikul, ridiculed, and fii in the he who has atiained eminence, will incritice molt abfurd points of view.


any thing to lecuie hinfilt in the By thule incans be often forced us to trong holds of 1rjxriority. join in the litigh of the inoment, thongh It Foute ezerciseu his buffoonery on the


wirporal defects of others, he did not spare or the peculation of public money: as himielt, with whom, it may be said, he had " George Selwyn and Monley promiled an undoubte: right to take such liberties. to come, I need not caution you aguint He often called himself Captain Timber “ ridiculing people who fabricate Itale jeits, ine, and where a piece his seemed to lan " and teil natty Itories." Seth and Ag, I have fccn him, by a If the Manager were living in the present hel:bling walk across the itage, accompanied day, and to invite a party, I am inclined with lignificant gefture and grimace, set to think he would not speak of a pulizthe house in a roar.

He was threatened by mentary reform, the llave trade, or the a genticman for laking bim off: I use Irish propositions, in the hearing of Mr.

you no worse than myself, for,” said Pite: he would be too polite to touch on Fonte

, “ I will take myself off," and le long speeches, or recantation pamphlets, in inttantly quitted the room.

the prelence of Mr. Burke ; nor would lie I laid lie was a man of genius; lis con venture to mention toleration, and the mild versation, and his dramatic writings, firely spirit of chriftianity, to Dr. Horfiey, or the au:horite the assertion; but I have come danger of credulity and implicit faiih, to times han inclined to doubt, if I could say the copious Dr. Priestley: the same of David Garrick, who, by the To a man like Garrick, who Ihrunk help of an eye which from its anatomical from, and was alive all over to the fear of #ructure touched the itrings of the heart, giving or suffering offence, the company of and a happy affociation of features which Foote was irksome and terrifying ; " for, accurately represented the pasions, assisted « like me, lie will say or do any thing, by habit and experience, acquired excel. faid George Buedens, whose unbounded lence in the proteflion of acting, which is licentioufnels, brutality, profaneness, and ar imitative and mecbanic art.

profligacy, procured him with some, the The tascinating art of conversation, the character of a wit and a pleatant compaknack of picating in company heyond most nion, which he attained in certain circles by people, Mr. Garrick eminuly potelled; a lavage refolurion to say whatever canie but the eye of a keen observer could not uppermot, huwever incompatible with debut perceive, “ that when he was off the cenicy, order, or good sente; it was tage he was acting." Strenuous effort, ning muck" with a vengeance, and and the toil of attention, were palpably merited the fame treatment, being knocked evident in the whole of his behaviour; on the head, or kicked down stairs. while the amiable fear of giving offence,

" You did not know that I was behind or exciting relentinent, gave at umes luch you, Garrick, when you were repeating a peculiar dkgree of reterve to his manners “ the toliloquy, as you walked up the Hayand utterance, that Foote, whom he dread “ market a few days ago," laid Foote. ed, used fometimes to tell him, he was not Garrick lowered his brow. perfcct in his part.

« from Hamlet or Macbeth ?" said one of Many who huve enjoyed the pleafure of the company. “I should fancy, by the Mi. Garrick's company, and an exalted 6 conclusion,” replied Foote, “ that it pikalure it was, wave acknowledged the " was from an essay on compound interelt; quitice of this obfervation.

“ but you shall hear it: I was itumping Indeed it were to be wished, that cha “ gently along behind him, and was gomg réters which ftudy rather to please than to speak, but hearing him talk to him line in coinpary, were more frequent; es relt, I listened, and it was as follows: wt probably might have less wit, and lets “ Yes-yes--I wila potitively will wily merriment; but the inconvenience " leave off making a drudge of mytelt: would be alply inade up by luis wrang

“ I have already a fufficiency for every and let it blood.

purpose of dignity as well as comtari, I used formerly to divert myself with

“and why thould I be a llave to every in agung por Recius fitting in easy chit “ impertinent puppy who can throw dewi chai at breaktalt with Mis, Garrick, when “ his shilling? i politively will live like they expecte a large company winner at a gentleman. lle remained in this Hampioli, and giving her a loit et cu opinion," continued Foote, “lill he got Honiry kituie for the day.

to the corner of Coventry-street, wlien * We shall have Lord George Ger “ he met with the ghiott of a farthing

inaine, and General Burgoyne : you “ coming out of the fouff-thop, at which "know, my dear, of courle you won't

" heitarted, and it put every generous and “ speak of Minden or Saratogal; and as “ poble iclea to flight; he lunk again into we exptet Mr. Fox and Mr. Rigby, it “ih Manager, anı inarched on to Lei. beridiculous to touch on gaming,

" saiter-tields, full of pounds, hillings,

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« and pence, and a holly absorbed in mort. that it provided laughter for the giddy; and

gages, bank-notes, and three per cent. indecent merriment for the unthi. king, " confols."

while the go d and reasonable righed at his There appears very lit:le in this when , fate; such a life could not be expected to written, but the whole company were in end with confort or substantial hop-. one convulsive burit of laughter for five In the midst of company he was latterly minutes; and Garrick, seizing his hat, left observed to be often loit in reveries, whilst the room evidently chagrined.

frequent fighs and a corresponding counte. But latterly, Mr. Foote's spirits failed nance betrayed a heart ill at eale, and lie him, and he applied to his old resource the replied to a friend, who congratulating bottle, but in vain : yet even in those tem him on having fettled his annuity busines porary flashes which this false friend af. with Colman, obterved, that he might now fords, I have obferved intervals of filence pass the remainder of his life with tranin his company, which I could account for quillity: "I was miserable before, and no otherwise than from the fear inspired by "nov: I am far from being happy. the keenuels of his sarcasm, and the over. He died at Dover, on his

way to France, whelming tumultuous attack of his humour, from an over-dole of laudanum, taken which, when exerted, always predominated, either by mistake or design; though, froin and bore down every thing and every body an authentic relation of the circumitance before it.

by a perfon present, I strongly incline to But a life spent in a violation of the the latter opinion. moral duties, and whole best praise was,

To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. SIR, FROM a full conviction of your readiness to insert in your excellent Miscellany

whatever is really entertaining, I send you the following elegant Epitaph for chai purpose, which is transcribed from an old brals plate in the chancel of Ayliton church, Rear Leiceber, dated 1594.

In obitum pientissimi viri
Avunculi et patroni sui colendiffimi J. H.
Si natale folum quæras ; enque tibi lummis

Ad cælum assurgit Derbia venticibus ;
Illa niihi prima indulfit fpiramina vitæ,

Communi præbens in patria patriam.
Natus ibi, bic vixi: hic duduin vixiffe fatetur
Gens inopum, et luget me male cincta cohors.
Hic vixi, fobolis fraternæ educator et altor.

Ille dedit vitam, victum ego munificé.
Ilie dedit ipirare fuis, ego protinus auxi

Et manibus fovi viscera nata meis.
Nec tamen exorata mihi mors, mors pietatern

Si feriat, quantum fæviet in reprobos?


THE celebrated Dr. Rush, of Phila.

Marions made during the last five years, delphia, has jutt published a fecond upon per fons of both sexes, who have volume of Medical Enquiries and Obfer pafled the 8oth year of their lives. I in. vations, from which the following is taken: iended to have given a detail of their AN ACCOUNT OF THE STATE OF THE names--manner of life-occupations

BODY AND MIND IN OLD AGE; WITH and other circumstances of each of them; OBSERVATIONS ON ITS DISEASES, but, upon a review of my notes, I found AND THEIR REMEDIES.

so great a fameness in the history of most Muft of the facts which I shall deliver of them, that I despaireci, by detailing upon this subject are the result of obfer.

them, ot answering the intention which I


hace proposed inthe following efsay. I hall, that literary men (other circumstances therefore, only deliver the facts and prin- being equal) are longer-lived than other ciples which are the result of enquiries and people. But it is not necessary that the oblervations I have made upon this subject. underftanding Nhould be employed upon

1. I fall mention the circunstances philosophical subjects to produce this inwhich favour the attainment of longevity: Huence upon human life. Butineis, politics,

II I mall mention the phenomena of and religion, which are the objects of albody and mind which attend it: and, tention of mer of all classes, impart a vi.

ill. I shall enumerate its peculiar dir- gaur to the understanding, which, by being esses, and the remedies which are inost conveyed to every part of the body, tends proper to remove, or moderate them. to produce health and long life.

1. The cireumstances which favour 4. EQUANIMITY OF TEMPER. longevity are,

The violent and irregular actions of the 1. DESCENT FROM LONG-LIVED passions tend to wear awaythe fprings oflife. ANCESTORS.

Persons who live upon annuities in EuI have not found a single instance of a rupe bave been observed to be longer-lived, person who has lived to be tighty years old in equal circumstances, than other people. in whom this was not the case. In forne This is probably occasioned by their being infances I found the descent was only from exempted, by the certainty of their subcne, but in general it was from both pa- filterice, from those fears of want which fo Tents. The knowledge of this fact may frequently distract the ininds, and thereby ferve, not only to aslift in calculating what weaken ile boilies of all people. Lifeare called the chances of lives, but it may rents have been supposed to have the same be made uliful to a physician. He may influence in prolonging life. Perhaps the learn from it to cherin hopes of bis patient's desire of lite, in order to enjoy as long as in chronic, and in some acute diseases, in potlible that property which cannot be en. proportion to the capacity of life they have joyed a second time by a child or relation, derived froin their ancestors.

may be another cause of the longevity of 4, TEMPERANCE IN EATING AND perfons who live upon certain incomes. DRINKING.

It is a fact, that the defire of life is a very To this remark I found several excep. powerful stimulus in prolonging it, espetons.-I met with one man of eighty-four cially when that desire is supported by hope. years of a who had been intemperate in This is obvious to phyficians every day. eating ; and four or five persons who ha: Despair of recovery is the beginning of heen intemperate in drinking ardentipirits, death in all difeales. They liad all been day-labourers, or luat de

But obvious and reasonable as the effects ferred drinking until they began to feel the of equanimity of temper are upon human languor of old age. ' I did not meet with a lite, there are some exceptions in favour buigle person who had not, for the last fortyor of parlionate inen and women having atsfrysears of they lives, used tea, coffee, and tained to a great age. The morbid ftimulus bread and butter, twice a day as part of of anger in these cases, was probably obe their diet. I am difpoled to believe, that viated by le's degrees, or less active exerthose articles of diet do not materially af. ciles of the underttanding, or by the defect fect the duration of human life, although or weakness of some of the other stimuli they evidently impaiị the strength of the which kept up the motious of life. yitem. The duration of life does not

5. MATRIMONY. appear to depend so much upon the strength In the course of my enquiries, I mci o the body, or upon the quantity of its with only one person beyond 80 years of excitability, as upon exact accommodation age who had never been married.' I met of stimuli to each of thein. A watch with several women who had bore from ten Spring will lait as long as an anchor, p:o. to twenty children, and suckled thein all. I Wed the forces which are capable of de. met with one woman,a native of Hereford. fioşing both are in an exact ratio to their fire in England, who is now in the 100th Itrengil. The use of tea and coffee in diet year of her age,who bore a child at 60,men. feems to be happily suited to the change itruared till 80, and frequently luckied two which has tzken place in the human boiiy of her children (though born in fucceffion by leventary occupations, by which means to each other) at the same time. She had leis nouriinment and itinuius are required passed the greatelt part of her life over a Ihan for:nerly to support animal life. washing-tub. 3. THE MODERATE USE OF THE UNDER 6. I have not found sedentary employ.

ments to prevent long live, where they are It has long been an established truth, not accompanied by intemperance in eat. Vol. XXV.




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