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War troops of England were then in the Baltic or in the

inlets to it. No sooner had admiral Gambier and
Russia general lord Cathcart quitted the Sound, and the

season become so far advanced as to prevent the
land. british navy from operating in the Baltic, than

Alexander spoke aloud the language of defiance.
The emperor's declaration, which issued at St.-
Petersburg on the 31st of October, was received in
London on the 3d of December, and replied to on the
18th by a counter-declaration, clearly, forcibly, and
elegantly drawn up; a state-paper, indeed, that
might serve all future cabinets for a model.* On
the same day reprisals were ordered against russian
ships, vessels, and goods, but the time of the year
prevented the immediate undertaking of any active

As the firm ally of England, Sweden necessarily
confe- became involved in war with her two neighbours,
derates Denmark and Russia. The first, happily for Sweden,
Eng- having only two line-of-battle ships, a 74 and a 64,

and some armed indiamen, brigs of war, and gun-
boats, was without a navy to molest her ; but the
second possessed a fleet, already in ports of the
Baltic, and of far greater strength than any that
Gustavus could send to sea. For instance, the
russian Baltic fleet, according to the official report
of the minister of marine, consisted, on the 9th of
November, 1807, of 20 new ships of the line carry-
ing 1588 guns, and 14 frigates and corvettes carrying
426 guns, besides brigs and smaller vessels. Among
the line-of-battle ships were three or four three-
deckers, and nearly the whole of the others were
74-gun ships. Several of the frigates, also, mounted

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50 guns.

Swedish navy.

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The swedish feet consisted of 11 or 12 sail of the line and six or seven frigates; not more than half the former in an effective state. The following account of the recommended, if not of the actual, gun

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* See the New Annual Register for the year 1807, p. 298.

force of swedish ships of war, is extracted from the 1808. work of the celebrated naval architect Chapman :

Ships of the line.

Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs./Guns.Pdrs. First deck

30 48* 30 42 30 42 28 36 26 36 Second deck

32 36 32 30 32 24 | 30 24 28 24 Third deck ...

30 24 32 18 Qr.deck and forecastle 18 12

18 12 16 12 12 12

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Guins.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Guns.Pdrs. Main deck ..... 26 30 | 26 24 24 18 24 12 22 12 Qr.deck and forecastle 18 12 14 8 12 6 8 6 6 4

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Towards the middle or latter end of May the british naval force assembled in the Sound, Great Belt, and Baltic, and which was under the command of vice-admiral sir James Saumarez, consisted of the gun-ship

vice-adm. (b.) sir Jas. Saumarez, bt. K. B. 100 Victory

captain George Hope.

Peter Dumaresq.

rear-adm. (w.) sir Samuel Hood, K. B. r Centaur

captain William Henry Webley.

rear-adm. (b.) Rich. Goodwin Keats. Superb

captain Samuel Jackson.

Thomas Byam Martin.

Thomas Graves.

William Lukin.

sir Arch. Collingwood Dickson.

Peter Puget.

Thomas Baker.

Donald Campbell.

John Barrett. Frigates, Africaine, Euryalus, Salsette, Tribune, and Tartar; besides sloops, gun-brigs, &c.

Upwards of 200 sail of transports, having on board Rusabout 14000 troops under sir John Moore for the feet assistance of the Swedes, had accompanied the fleet;

sails but, owing to some misunderstanding between the Cronking of Sweden and the general, relative to the stadt. particular service allotted to these troops, they were

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* For the english caliber of the swedish pounder see vol. i. p.59. VOL. V.


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1808. suffered to return to England without being employed
Aug. or even debarked.

Early in August the russian fleet, consisting, be-
sides the following nine sail of the line and three
50-gun ships, of eight frigates and ship-corvettes,
two brig-corvettes, and two cutters, in all 24 sail,
under the command of vice-admiral Hanickoff, or
Chanikow,* sailed from Cronstadt,

120 Blagodath.


74 St.-Anna. 118 Gabriel.


S Amgatten.



On the 19th this fleet arrived in Hango bay, a
port in Swedish Finland, then in the possession of
the russian army; and on the same day the russian
admiral chased the Goliath. At this time the british
admiral, with four sail of the line, was at anchor off
the island of Langland. Two other british sail of
the line were off Copenhagen, and the remaining
four off the island of Nyborg, quite at the oppo-
site extremity of the Baltic. The swedish squadron,
consisting of seven sail of the line and four frigates,
was at anchor in Oro roads.

On the 20th of August rear-admiral sir Samuel

Hood, with the Centaur and Implacable, arrived and joins anchored in company with the swedish fleet. On the

same afternoon the Russians made their appearance
off the road, and presently anchored outside. On the
21st, in the evening, the russian fleet, numbering, as
before, nine sail of the line, three 50-gun ships, eight
frigates and ship-corvettes, two brigs, and two cutters,
got under way and stood off and on the road. On
the 22d four swedish sail of the line came down from

Jungfur sound, and joined their companions in Oro Sickly road. Although the force of the swedish admiral of swe-was thus augmented to 11 sail of the line, five

frigates, and one brig, yet upwards of a third of

Sir Sam. Hood

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Swedish fleet.

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dish crews.


* The first is according to sir Samuel Hood's letter in the London Gazette, the second actording to a translation of the russian admiral's letter in the Moniteur.


the crews were ill in bed with the scurvy, of which 1808. many died daily.

Aug. On the 23d, in the afternoon, the russian fleet, making a very formidable appearance, stood close in to Oro road, with a fine west-south-west wind; then tacked, and stood off. On the 25th, at 6 A. M., the swedish fleet, accompanied by the Centaur and Im- Sweplacable, got under way, with a fresh breeze at fleet north-east, and made sail in pursuit of the russian sails in fleet; which, at 9 a. M., to the number of 23 sail, of ruswas seen in the south-east, off Hango-Udd. At sian about noon, as had been previously arranged, the swedish 70-gun ship Frederic-Adolph, with a great proportion of the sick on board, parted company from the fleet, and steered for Carlscrona. This left with the swedish admiral the gun-ship

rear-adm. Nauckhoff. 78 Gustav-IV.-Adolph..

captain Lagerstrale.

Krusenstjerna. 76 Uladislaffe


commodore Jagerfelt. Adolph-Fredric

captain count Wrangel. Aran....

Jagerschold 74 Dristigheten


Gustay III.

L Manligheten

Nordenankar. 66 Forsigtigheten. .

baron Cederstrom. Tapperheten

Fiscerstroud. Frigates, Euridice 46, Chapman 44, Camilla and Bellona 42, and Janamas 34, and cutter-brig Dolphin.

The anglo-swedish fleet now consisted of 12 sail Relaof the line and five frigates, mounting 1156 guns; force of while the russian fleet, of nine sail of the line, three the two 50s, and eight frigates and corvettes, (not reckoning the two brigs,) mounted 1118. guns. Here was no great disparity, especially considering the ineffective state of the swedish ships; but the russian admiral, not knowing this, or considering the two ships with british ensigns flying, and who soon became the most conspicuous objects, as a host in themselves, made all sail to get away. A windward chase was

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1808, not the thing for wooden-bottomed ships; nor, where
Aug. so much nicety was required in trimming sails, for

weak and inexperienced crews. Hence the Centaur
and Implacable, by 8 P. M., were five miles to-wind-
ward of the Swedes, notwithstanding the latter
carried every stitch of canvass that their ships would

The night's chase increased that distance to nearly
10 miles; and at 4 A. M. on the 26th the Implacable
had advanced two miles to-windward of the Centaur.
This brought the former ship within four or five miles
of the russian fleet, then bearing from east-north-east
to south-south-east, evidently much scattered, and
still crowding sail to escape.

At 4 h. 30 m. A. M. the Implacable, then on the larboard tack, observed a russian two-decker considerably to-leeward of her fleet. At 5h. 30 m. A. M. the latter, which was the 74-gun ship Sewolod, captain Rudnew, or Roodneff,

being on the starboard tack, passed the bow of the Impla- Implacable, who immediately tacked after her. At cable 6 h. 30 m. A. M. the Sewolod tacked. In about a gages quarter of an hour the two ships again crossed each Sewo- other; when the russian 74 opened her fire, which

was quickly returned by the Implacable. The latter
again tacked; and at 7 h. 20 m. A. M., having
overtaken the Sewolod and closed her within pistol-
shot to-leeward, the Implacable commenced the

action with the utmost vigour, and with such decided lod effect, that in less than half an hour the Sewolod, strikes. whose colours had been shot away early in the

combat, ceased firing and hauled down her pendant. sian ad. At this moment, observing that the russian admiral,

who with his fleet had bore up since the commencek closing.

ment of the close action, was within two miles of the Impla- Implacable, sir Samuel threw out the signal of recall.

The Implacable thereupon made sail to close the
Centaur, then upwards of a mile and a half to-lee-
ward. This the Implacable effected at 8 A. M., and
the two british 74s ran on in company, to join the
swedish fleet; the van-ship of which was nearly 10





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cable recalled.

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