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alge. An ammunition cart near it was covered with the fire, but fortunately did not explode. Some other trilling accidents were sustained.

We commenced in the night an epaulment to cover our guns but the work proyressed so little, from the shortness of time, I did not think it best to occupy it. We retreated our guns so as barely to allow the muzzles to peep over the hill. This brought us on descending ground, in a ploughed cornfield. The recoil of the downwards, every

time it was fired, gave us excessive labour to bring it up to its position. In other respects it answered admirably. The enemy found it impossible to hit either the guns or the men. Every shot aimed by them, either fell short and struck the bank, or flew clear over. Towards the close of the firing, they adopted the method of using small charges of powder, which just threw his shot over the hill, probably firing from hia carronades; but the effect was not more decisive.

To prevent the enemy taking alarm in the night, from our movements, we were necessitated to halt our ammunition wagons and carts above a quarter of a mile from the battery, and pass all our stores; even the bricks of which our furnace was constructed, were brought that distance by hand. This fatigued the men ese cessively. I felt certain, if the enemy should open upon us, even at a random fire, it would be impossible to get any thing done for the confusion it would create.

I ought to mention, that the situation in which the infantry and light artillery were placed, was a trying one for new raised troops. Most of the shot which missed the battery, fell among them. I had anticipated that disadvantage, but it was unavoidable. It was indispensable to have them covered by some rising ground from the waters of the Patuxent, and the position chosen, was the only one compatible with that view, and the design I had in posting them, to protect the rear of our battery.

The battalion of the 38th regiment, joined us but last evening, after a hard day's march, and were immediately marched to the ground. Some of their men were completely exhausted, and the whole excessively fatigued and half famished.

Commodore Barney's flotilla was at hand, ready to open upon the enemy, the moment a favourable opportunity should offer. He commenced firing soon after us, and drew off that of the enemy for a while. I have not seen him since the action, but understand he lost several men, killed and wounded.

I hope, on the whole, taking into consideration our not being fully prepared, the excessive fatigue the men had undergone, and that we have attained the object in view, which was the release of com, modore Barney's flotilla, the affair will not reflect dishonour of our troops.

I have the honour to be, &c.

DECIUS WADSWORTH General Jobn Armstrong, Secretary of War.



July 20, 1814. Major general Brown has the satisfaction to announce to the troops of his division, on this frontier, that he is authorized by the orders of his government, to put them in motion against the enemy. The first and second brigades, with the corps of artillery, will cross the straights before them this night, or as early tomorrow as possible. The necessary instructions have been given to the brigadiers, and by them to the commanding officers of regiments and corps.

Upon entering Canada, the laws of war will govern-men ound in arms, or otherwise engaged in the service of the enemy, will be treated as enemies; those behaving peaceably, and following their private occupations, will be treated as friends. Private property in all cases will be held sacred ; public property, wherever found, will be seized and disposed of by the commanding general. Our utmost protection will be given to all who actually join, or who evince a desire to join us.

Plundering is prohibited. The major general does not apprehend any difficulty on this account, with the regular army, or with honourable volunteers, who press too the standard of their country to avenge her wrongs, and to gain a name in arms. Profligate men who follow the army for plunder, must not expect that they will escape the vengeance of the gallant spirits, who are struggling to exalt the national character. Any plunderer shall be punished with death, who may be found violating this order. By order of the major general.

C. K. GARDNER, Adit. Gen. In pursuance of the above orders, the army passed the Niagara river on Sunday morning, 3d instant. The brigade of general Scott, and the artillery corps of major Hindman, landed nearly a mile below Fort Erie, between two and three o'clock, while general Ripley, with his brigade, made the shore about the same distance above. The enemy was perfectly unapprised of these movements. General Scott led the van, and was on shore before the enemy's picket, which was stationed at this point, tired a gun; the guard discharged their guns and retreated. In the morning, a small Indian corps was crossed over.

The fort was approached on the right and lest, and the Indians skirted the woods in the rear. General Brown now demanded a surrender of the garrison, and gave the commander two hours for consideration. In the mean time, a battery of long 18's was planted in a position which commanded the fort. The enemy surrendered prisoners of war-marched out of the fort at six, stacked their arms, and were immediately sent across the river to the American shore; there were upwards of 170 prisoners, of the 8th and 100th

regiments, among which were seven officers. Major Burke commanded the fort.

The schooners Tigress and Porcupine assisted in crossing the troops, and lay during the day within cannon-shot of the fort.

Captain Camp, of the quarter master general's department volunteered in the expedition, and crossed in the boat with general Scott.

During the mo' ning, the enemy fired two or three cannon from the fort, which killed one man, and wounded two or three others. We learn the enemy had one killed.

There are several pieces of ordnance in the garrison, and some military

Thus has the Niagara been crossed, and a fort captured, without scarcely the loss of a man.


ESSEX JUNIOR, July 3d, 1814-at sea. SIR,

I have done myself the honour to address you repeatedly, since I left the Delaware; but have scarcely a hope that one of my letters has reached you ; therefore consider it necessary to give you a brief history of my proceedings since that period.

I sailed from the Delaware on the 27th of October, 1812, and repaired with all diligence (agreeably to the instructions of commodore Bainbridge) to Port Praya, Fernando de Noronho, and Cape Frio, and arrived at each place on the day appointed to meet him. On my passage from Port Praya to Fernando de Noronho, I captured his Britannic majesty's packet Nocton; and after taking out about 11,000 sterling in specie, sent her under command of lieutenant Finch, for America. I cruized off Rio de Janeiro, and about Cape Frio, until the 12th January, 1813, hearing frequently of the commodore, hy vessels from Bahia. I here çaptured one schooner, with hides and tallow. I sent her into Rio. The Montague, the admiral's ship, being in pursuit of me, my provisions getting short, and finding it necessary to look out for a supply, to enable me to meet the commodore by the 1st April, off St Helena, I proceeded to the island of St. Catharine's (the last place of rendezvous on the coast of Brazil,) as the most likely to supply my wants, and, at the same time, afford me that intelligence necessary to enable me to elude the British ships of war on the coast, and expected there. I here procured only wood, water, and rum, and a few bags of flour; and hearing of the commodore's actior with the Java, the capture of the Hornet by the Montague, and of a considerable augmentation of the British force on the coast, several being in pursuit of me, I found it necessary to get to sea as soon as possible. I now, agreeably to the commodore's plan, stretched to the southward, scouring the coast

as far as Rio de la Plata. I heard that Buenos Ayres was in a state of starvation, and could not supply our wants, and that the government of Monteviedo was inim.ical to us. The commodore's instructions now left it completely discretionary with me what course to pursue, and I determined on following that which had not only met his approbation, but the approbation of the then Secretary of the Navy.

I accordingly shaped my course for the Pacific ; and after suffering greatly from short allowance of provisions, and heavy gales off Cape Horn, (for which my ship and men were ill provided) I arrived at Valparaiso on the 14th March, 1813. I here took in as much jerked beef, and other provisions, as my ship would cunveniently stow, and ran down the coast of Chili and Peru. In this track I fell in with a Peruvian corsair, which had on board 24 Americans, as prisoners, the crews of two whale ships, which she had taken on the coast of Chili. The captain informed me that, as allies of Great Britain, they would capture all they should meet with, in expectation of a war between Spain and the United States. I consequently threw all bis guns and ammunition into the sea, liberated the Americans, wrote a respectful letter to the viceroy, explaining the cause of my proceedings which I delivered to her captain. I then proceeded for Lima, and re-captured one of the vessels as she was entering the port. From thence I shaped my course for the Gallapagos islands, where I cruized from the 17th April until the Sd October, 1813; during this time I touched only once on the coast of America, which was for the purpose of procuring a supply of fresh water, as none is to be found among these islands, which are, perhaps, the most barren and desolate of any known. While among this group, I captured the following British ships, employed chiefly in the spermaceti whale fishery, viz.

Letters of Marque.

Tons. Men. Guns. Pierced for,
Montezuma, 270 21 2


18 Georgiana, 280 25 6

Greenwich, 338 25 10

355 24 8

220 21


270 25 11

270 29 8

Seringapatam, 350 31 14

274 21 10

New Zealander, 259 23

18 Sir A. Hammond, 301 31 12




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As some of these ships were captured by boats, and others by prizes, my officers and men had several opportunities of showing their gallantry.

The Rose and the Charlton, were given up to the prisoners ; the Hector, Catharine and Montezuma, I sent to Valparaiso, where they were laid up: the Policy, Georgiana, and New Zealand, I sent for America : the Greenwich I kept as a store ship, to contain the stores of my other prizes, necessary for us, and the Atlantic, now called the Essex Junior, I equipped with 20 guns, and gave the command of her to lieutenant Downes.

Lieutenant Downes had conveyed the prizes to Valparaiso, and on his return brought me letters, informing me that a squadron under the command of commodore James Hillyar, consisting of the frigate Phæbe, of 36 guns, had sailed on the 6th July for this

The Racoon and Cherub, had been seeking for me for some time on the coast of Brazil, and, on the return from their cruize, joined the squadron sent in search of me to the Pacific. My ship, as it may be supposed, after being near a year at sea, required some repairs to put her in a state to meet them ; which I determined to do, and bring them to action, if I could meet them on nearly equal terms. proceeded now, in company with the remainder of my prizes, to the island of Nooaheevah, or Madison's island, lying in the Washington group, discovered by a captain Ingrahan, of Boston. Here I caulked and completely overhauled my ship, made for her a new set of water casks, her old ones being nearly decayed, and took on board from my prizes, provisions and stores for upwards of four months, and sailed for the coast of Chili on the 12th December, 1813. Previous to sailing I secured the Seringa patam, Greenwich, and Sir A. Hammond,

under the guns of a battery which I erected for their protection : after taking possession of this fine island for the United States, and establishing the most friendly intercourse with the natives, I left them under charge of lieutenant Gamble, of the marines, with 21 men, with orders to repair to Valparaiso, after a certain period.

I arrived on the coast of Chili, on the 12th January, 1814 ; looked into Conception and Valparaiso, found at both places only three English vessels, and learned that the squadron which sailed from Rio de Janeiro for that sea, had not been heard of since their departure, and was supposed to be lost in endeavouring to double Cape Horn.

I had completely broken up the British navigation in the Pacific; the vessels which had not been captured by me, were laid up, and dare not venture out. I had afforded the most ample protection to our own vessels, which were, on my arrival, very numerous and unprotected. The valuable whale fishery there, is entirely destroyed, and the actual injury we have done them may be estimated at two and a half millions of dollars, independent of the expenses of the vessels in search of me. They have supplied me amply with sails, cordage, cables, anchors, provisions, medi

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