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powers of Europe would enter into Theminifter had said, the French had an alliance with us : the result of misrepresented : perhaps they bad; that policy was seen ; France had but an explanation, on his part, was gained the alliance of Spain, the not therefore less necessary. The powers of Italy and the Netherlands; minifter was always explicit in the they had obtained the neutrality, at house, no doubt, lince he convinced least, he believed, the friendship of the majority of it; but it must be the king of Prussia: these are its confeiled, that out of the house, allies, to say nothing of Holland. no man was more unfortunate in his But it seems, the French would be explanations. The French directoencouraged if this house should in- ry had misunderstood him; the conterfere with the executive govern- tractors for the loan misunderstood ment. Would they really think him; the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, less of our energy, if we took our and even the directors of the bank affairs into our own hands, instead of England, who took notes of his of trusting the minister ?-Would conversation for the express purpose they expect to make better terms, of accuracy, had also misunderthrough the medium of representa- stood him. tives, than with the present govern Mr. Fox concluded, with wishment :~He apprehended, quite the ing, that for the future, the minireverse; and that, as we thould ex- fter would employ some other person pect more justice from the French in public affairs, whose knowledge people than we did from any faction of words was more upon a level amongst them, so would they of with the rest of mankind than his Great Britain ; and he would hope own, that men of ordinary capathat, neither the republic would be city might stand a chance of com"hoftile to England, nor the limited prehending his meaning, He remonarchy of this country to the commended it earnestly to the house, just claims of the republic. What to consider the admirable, the asiobetter pledge could we give of our nifhing, patience of the people unfincerity in defiring peace, than byder the calamities which the minitelling them, by a vote of the house ster had heaped upon them, and the of commons, that we were willing duty which he owed to them when to negotiate. Let us not imagine they boldly spoke out their wishes (said Mr. Fox) that we can deceive for peace. the public by our profeslions; they Mr. Pitt declared, he had no inare too well informed; they feel clination to have spoken again upon too much to be imposed upon. Let the present subject; he should only us not perpetually talk of our wishes offer a few reasons for voting for the for peace; let us use means for ob- order of the day. The honourable taining it (hear! hear! hear! re. gentleman had himself stated, afounded through the house). Let us midft his digressions, that the quet. trust to ministers no longer; let us tion for the confideration of the wote for peace. He then spoke a few house was, whether peace was likely words upon the motion, which de- to be accelerated, by leaving it 10 sired the king to explain the reason government to act as seemed to them why negotiations had not been re- best calculated to produce that efnewed; this, he observed, was high- fect, or by the previous declaration ly neceffary, as those already af- of parliament on that subject ? Mr. ligned were much too equivocal. Fox had taken some pains to prove,
that throughout the country there tleman had approved of that part of was a wish for peace; also through- the motion which called for an exout the house : this was a point he planation of the terms offered to the might have spared himself the trou-French; but could he with that the ble of arguing; it was admitted to king, without the consent of the be the with of the house, and of emperor, should itate publicly what the public; bat it was not the with those terms were? Finally, as the of either, to procure that uncondi- measure was unnecessary, if not intional peace which was held out to jurious, Mr. Pitt conceived it his us, or to obtain it by the surrender duty to oppose it. of our honour, our fidelity to our Mr. Fox infifted, that the mini. brave ally, and our national charac: fter had overlooked the strong arguter. The right honourable gentle- ment, and the whole design of the man had granted, that in ordinary measure, which was to express to all times, the interference of parlia- Europe the fincerity of the house in ment in the business of negotiation its desire to negotiate. was wrong; but that now it was Sir William Pulteney said, that right, on account of the emergen- what the parliament and the nation cies of the times. He thought this should require, was not so much an was very extraordinary doctrine ; immediate peace, as a secure one ; because, if it were necessary to ab- and this object would be accomplishftain from interference in ordinary ed by patience under our sufferings, times, how much more fo muft it be and perseverance in the conteft; nor in a crisis fo important as the pre- ought the state of our finances to feat. After dwelling long on the depress our spirits ; our wealth and lincerity of minifters respecting resources were immense, and our peace, he adverted to that part of temporary embarrassments were no Mr. Fox's speech which mentioned reasons for our despondency. He the mission to Vienna. Mr. Fox could not see what advantage was to had said, that its object had not yet be derived from a vote of parliabeen explained; to which he re- ment; it was true, that in the Ameplied, it furely was enough, to de- rican war, a vote was supposed to clare fuch a person was to be sent, have contributed to its termination, if it appeared to those who sent him, but there wa, no comparison between moft likely to attain their object, that war and the present: that war and to forward a general pacitica- did not threaten our internal peace tion conjunctively with his majesiy's and security ; tbis (he faid) ftruck allies. Mr. Pitt affirmed, that the sat our national existence; and where steps he had taken, in consequence could be the advantage of peace, if of the separate offers for peace by peace were not founded in fincerity? the French to the emperor, had As long as they retained Belgium and been measures resolved upon, when Holland, no security could there be for he argued the question relative to the England. Now was the moment to loan with the enıperor ; and who- ftrain every nerve in the struggle; and ever looked into the subject, whe- he was more fearful that ministers ther with reference to peace or war, would be too forward than tootardy must see that a loan was peculiarly in bringing things to a termination. neceffary; and in consequence of it, His complaint against them was, we had renewed our endeavours for that on hearing the disasters which peace,' The right honourable gen. had befallen the imperial arms, they
had not immediately come down to your of the motion, and the house, and called for a loan to Colonel Fallarton expatiated up. invigorate the brave exertions of on the unconciliatory temper and their illustrious ally! He could not offensive manner in which our di. poffibly agree with Mr. Fox, that plomatic intercourse had been conminifters Thould be driven to a ne- ducted on the continent. gotiation by the intervention of par “ These were not times (he faid) liament, and considered the motion to entruft the intereits of the couotry to have a most dangerous tendency to plenipotentiaries, who entrench
Sir John Macpherson thought it ed themselves behind the ramparts was but justice to declare to all Eu- of etiquette, and stalked on the stilts rope, that we only came forward in of ambassadorial mightiness." defence of our own rights and liber It was well known, from the ties, and not enslave or entrench commencement of the war, that the upon those of other nations. On French had refifted all ideas of treatthese grounds, he confidered it his ing with the confederated powers ; duty to support the motion. they had proved their wisdom in to
Mr. Johnes opposed it, protesting doing, for by treating individually, that he never could forget the igno- they had detached every power from minious manner in which our am the confederacy, excepting Austria bassador had been dismissed, nor and England. forgive the insult offered to the na Mr. Western and Mr. Martin tion. The objects we contended supported the motion. for, he thought, were our liberties, The question was at length loud. our fortunes, our religion, our God, ly called for, and the house divided. and our king
-For Mr. Pollen's, motion, 65Mr. Green said a few words in fa. Against it, 291--Majority, 200.
CH A P. IV.
Alarming Mutiny at Portsmoutb.-Delegates chosen by the Flect. The Sailors
refuse to weigh Anchor.-Lord Howe arrives with tbe Aft for an Increase of Pay-Tbe Sailors Return to their Duty - A Mutiny at the Nore.The Flag of the Sandwich struck.-Delegates cbofen. - Deputatim of the Admiralty proceed to Sheerness.--Part of Admiral Duncan's Fleet join the Mutiny.
- Proclamation of Pardon.—The Earl of Northesk arrives in London with Preposals from the Sailors.-- Preparations made to attack the Mutineers.-Several of the nutinous Ships return to their Duty:— The Delegates seized.
-Court Martial beld 11pon Parker and otber Mutiners.--Parker's Trial, Convi&tioni, and Execution.--Mutiny on board the Pompée off Brefi.- Par liamentary Proceedings upon the Mutiny--in the House of Lords-in the Commons.—Bill pafjed for tbe Augmentation of the Siamen's Wages. --Bill passed to prevent Ercitations to Mutiny and Sedition.—Bill for preventing an Intercourse avitb tbe Ships in Mutiny. HE British nation was, per-, debted for more than success in a
haps, never engaged in a con common warfare: for fafety and extef, in which the importance of its iftence. It was, therefore, not withnaval power was more apparent than out the most serious apprehenfions, the preseịt. To that we are in that a spirit of difatłection was ob
ferred, in the spring of 1797, to the sime manner from the other break out in the feet, the origin of thips, which fufficiently manifefted which it was not easy to trace, though a complete combination. The inthe consequences of its continuance ferior officers appeared to concur were sufficiently obvious. The pro. with the men, and all the exertions feffed, and perhaps, the real motive of the commanders were ineffectul; of the disturbance, was the redress but, excepting their refusal to weigh of certain grievances refpecting the anchor, their conduct was more orquantum and distribution of their pay derly and peaceable than could have and provisions : complaints not new been expected. Delegates were then in their nature, but (as their petitions appointed from each fhip, to repre. set forth) more intolerable than ever sent the whole fleet; the admiral's from the circumstances of the cabin being fixed upon as the place times.
for their deliberation, wbile the otIn the month of February, some ficers were restrained, by force, from letters were forwarded from the going on thore. Petitions were next feet at Portsmouth to earl Howe; drawn up, and presented to the adpraying for his lordfhip's influence mirals then upon the spot, ftating towards obtaining redress of certain their demand of an increase of wagrievances mentioned in those let- ges, and also some regulations for ters. As the letters were, however, their benefit, with respect to the anonymous, and appeared to be ratio of provisions. They further moft of them written in the same exprefied a hope, that an answer hand-writing, and cogched in the might be given to their petition fame language, they were confider- before they were ordered to put to ed as the prodaction of some fac- sea again. This
, however, was quatious individual, and therefore were lified with the exception, “ unleis deemed unworthy of attention. the enemy were known to be at This neglect of the petition of the fea." feamen, on their return to port, on On the 17th, the men were pub. the 31st of March, produced a ge. licly tworn to support the cause in neral correspondence, by letter, from which they were engaged. On the fhip to thip through the whole fleet; next day, a committee of the admiand at length it was unanimously ralty, with earl Spencer at their agreed, that no ship should lift an head, arrived at Portsmouth; who anchor till the demands of the sea- made several propositions, to reduce men were complied with. Matters the men to obedience. The lords remained in this state till the 14th of the admiralty next proceeded on of April, when Lord Bridport re- board the Queen Charlotte, and ceived orders from government to conferred with the delegates from fail from Portsinouth with the chan the seamen of the fleet; who allurnel fleet: on the following day, ed their lordships, that no arrangehowever, when the fignal was made ment would be considered as final to prepare for sea, a general dis- until it should be fantioned by the obedience was obvious; and instead king and parliament, and guaranof weighing anchor, the feamen of teed by a proclamation for a genethe admiral's thip rap up the shrouds ral pardon. and gave three cheers (a fignal pre On the 23d, the admiral returnvioully agreed upon to announce the ed to his ship, hoifted his flag again, disobedience of orders) and these and, after a short address to the cheers were inftadrly answered in crew, he informed them, that he
had brought with him a redress of On the 15th, the delegates frora all their grievances, and his majef- the several ships landed, and proty's pardon for the offenders : after ceeded to the governor's house at fome deliberation, these offers were Portsmouth ; and after having paraccepted, and every man returned taken of some refreshments, marchwith chearfulness to his duty. It ed in procellion to the fleet, accomwas now generally thought that all panied by lord and lady Howe, and disputes were finally settled: the some officers and persons of distincfilence, however, of Mr. Pitt, in tion. Having visited the thips at omitting to explain the reasons St. Helens', they proceeded to Spitwhich called for an increase of pay head, where the crews of the ships to be granted to the navy, when he under fir Roger Curtis were hapfubmiited a motion for that purpose pily conciliated. At seven in the to the house of commons, was con- evening his lordship landed, and firued, by part of the seamen, into a the delegates carried him upon their disposition not to accede to their de- shoulders to the governor's house, mands. In confirmation of this fup amidst the plaudits of the surroundposition, on the 7th of May, when ing multitude. Affairs being thus lord Bridport made the lignal to adjusted, the sailors afterwards apweigh anchor and put to sea, every peared to be perfe@ly satisfied, the thip at St. Helens' refused to obey. officers were generally re-instated in A meeting of the delegates was or their commands, the flag of disafdered on board the London. Vice fe&tion was struck, and the fileet admiral Colpoys resolved to oppote prepared to put to sea to encounter their coming on board, and gave orders to the marines to level their The public saw, with infinite fapieces at them; the marines obeyed, tisfaction, that the grievances of and a slight skirmish ensued, in their brave defenders were redrefied, which five of the seamen were kill and that they had returned to obeed. The whole crew of the Lon- dience and to their duty ; but this don now turned their guns towards pleasure was fpeedily turned into the stern, and threatened to blow fresh alarm and confternation, by a all aft into the water, unless the new mutiny in another quarter, commanders surrendered; to this which, for boldness and extent, was imperious menace they reluctantly without a parallel in the naval hiflubmitted, and admiral Colpoys and tory of Britain. captain Griffiths were contined for The North-fea fleet, as well as several hours in separate cabins. the ships lying at the Nore, appear
The sailors at Portimouth remain- ed to have the redress of other grieved in this mutinous state till the ances in view, besides what related 14th of May, when lord Howe at to the increase of pay and provifions, length arrived from the Admiralty, which had been demanded by the with plenary powers, to enquire into grand fleet at Spithead. The muand settle the matters in dispute ; tineers, in imitation of what had been he was also the welcome bearer of done at Portsmouth, chofe delegates an act of parliament, which had from every thip, of whom a man of been passed on the gth, granting an the name of Richard Parker was additional allowance, and also with appointed president. After having his majesty's proclamation of par- either confined or sent on shore their don for all who should immediately principal officers, they transmitted return to their duty.
to the lords of the admiralty a fe