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them against America, in 1774; he bårous times. He concluded with
deprecated them against France, in the words of Cicero, recommend.
1793; and he now deprecated the ing them to the ferious confidera-
fame fyftem in Ireland. Though his tion of every person to whom the
advice had not been followed, it was important task of legislation was
a confolation to him individually, afligned :-
that it had not been withheld. Carum efle civibus, benc de repu-
Measures of coercion had proceed- blica mereri, laudari, coli, dilizi, glsa
ed from the same source; war had riofum eft; metui viro et in odio ele,
been preferred to negotiation, and invidiofum, deteftabile, imbecillum, ca-
force to conciliation; because, in- ducum.
ftead of regulating our plans by a For the motion, 84; against it
mild and enlightened policy, we 220.
had acted upon the maxims of bar-,

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CH A P. VII.

Popular Meetings for the Purpose of petitioning for the Dismission of Mi

kifters. Motion to that Efect in the House f Lords-in ihe House of
Commons. The Duke of Bedford's Motion on the State of the Nation. Mr.

Grey's Motion on a Parliamentary Reform..
IN
N the course of the spring feve. they had sacrificed, and the fum

ral popular meetings were held they had added to human misery, it
agreeably to the refirictions of the was added, were incalculable. The
new act, the avowed object of petition proceeds :-
which was to petition his majesty “ We humbly represent to your
for the dismissal of mivisers. In majesty, that in the hands of those
most of these meetings the petie ministers nothing has succeeded.
tions were carried unanimously, " Instead of restoring monarchy
particularly in the cities of London in France, they have been com
and Westininster, the borough of pelled to recognize the republic
Southwark and the county of Mid- there established, and to offer pro.
dlesex. The petitions contained posals of peace to it. Instead of
heavy charges against the ministry, dismembering the territories of that
but that of the city of Westminster republic, they have suffered it to
was fuller than most, and equally add to them the Netherlands, Hol-
strong with any. It commenced land, and great part of Italy and
with charging the ministers with Germany; and even a part of thefe
having wantonly involved the na- kivgdoms, which the teets of that
tion in a ruinous war, in confe- republic have insulted, has only
quence of which they had squan. been preserved from the calamities
dered upwards of ONE HUNDRED of an invafion, by the accidents of
AND THIRTY MILLIONS OF MO-, the seasons.
NEY; and laid on taxes to the “ In their negotiations for peace,
amount of sıx MILLIONS AND A they liave been equally unsuccess
HALF annually. The lives which ful. It was to be expected. When

they

they asked peace, they were abject, the horrors of lawless military vio-
but not fincere; they ackbowledg- lence.
ed their impotence, but not their 66 These are no common errors.
errors. They discovered the moft They are great crimes; and of
hofile dispositions towards France, thefe crimes, before God and our
at the very time they proved their country, we accuse your minis-
viies inability to contend with ters. Our affections to your ma-
ber.

jesty's perfon, our loyalty to your " When they wanted to obtain government, are unabated :-your our consent to the war, they affured majesty's virtues are a piedge for is that it was necessary for the the one; the conftitution which safety of our commerce. At this makes you king, for the other. moment, most of the ports of Eu. But duty to our fellow-countrymen, rope are fhut against us; goods to and to our posterity, which is but an immense amount are lying upon another name for that affection and the hands of our merchants; and loyalty, impels us to reprefent to the manufa&uring poor are starving your majetty, that your minifters by tbousands.

are defrauding ús of the benefit of * They assured us the war was those virtues, by destroying the necessary for the preservation of channels through which they Aow. property and public eredit. They They have, irnished the national have rendered every man's propers honour and glory ; they have opty subject to an order of the privy pressed the poor with almost intolecouncii

, and the bank of England rable burthens; they have poisoned has stopped payment.

the intercourse of private life; they “ They allured us that the war have given a fatal blow to public was neceitary for the preservation credit; they have divided the emof the conftitution. They have pire; and they have subverted the destroyed its best part, which is conftitution." its liberty, by oppressive reüric Thus far we have thought protions upon the right of petitioning, per to infert; because from the and upon the freedom of the press; substance of one, the reader will by prosecuting innocent men under be able to judge of the general te. falle pretences; by sending inoney nor of these petitions. The fuccess to foreign princes without the con- which the peritions experienced in fent of parliament; while, by e. the public meetings, and the genereĝing baracks throughout the ral clamour and difatisfaction at kingdom, they give us realon to the conduct of ministers, which apfurrect their intention of finally peared to prevail throughout the fubje&ting the people to military nation, encouraged some of the despotism.

leaders of opposition to bring for, * Thev aflored us the war was ward motions to the same efteå in necessary for the preservation of the both houses of parliament. The unity of our empire. But ther have firft of these motions was made on lo conducted, and are still lo con. the 27th of March, when the earl ducting, them fuives in Ireland, as to of Sutfoik addrefed their lordships alienate the affections of that brave, on a subject which, he faid, it was loyal, but opprelled and perfecuted the duty of every Englifhman to difpation, and to expofe the most cufs. The present situation of the fourishing of its provinces to all country was become truly alarm

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iog; and it was a matter of the Lord Grenville opposed the mohighest importance, that its fatety tion, because he thought the noble and protection filould no longer he eart had not founded his obje&ions left in the hands of a man who had upon facts. He warmly vindicated fhown himself so totally incapable his friend, the first lord of the treain every respect, except in the arts fury, respecting the measures of of deception. His lord ship, after which he food arcuied; re was adverting to the negle&t and ill confident the neglect and failure of treatment given by ministers to any of them was attributable only wards brave veterans who had dife to those errors to which human na. tinguillied themselves by valor and ture was at all times liable, to those patriotism, as the late lord Rodney, accidents which to human pruIord Howe, and är Charles Grey, dence could prevent, or to those Spoke of the secall of earl Fitzwil. dispensations of Providence which Jam, which he said could only be no human wisdom could controul. mentioned in the strongest terms of The public cause was said to be indisapprobation. A language had jured by removing some officers frequently been used, he remarked, from the public service to make room tending to throw an odium on all for others more serviceable to priwho fpoke freely on the state of af- vate views. Gallant officers it was fairs, infinuating that they were affirmed had been neglected ; but, friends to commotion anitto French without entering into the invidious principles : his lordfip reprobated task of scanning deserts, his lordsuch infinuations with severity; faip begged to remark, that admiasked how it was possible any oneral Rodney had received the peercould suppose he could be fo loft to age he so well deserved, besides all sense of honour, to the reve. certain pecuniary grants, sufficient, rence and respect he owed to a with economy and management, long line of ancestry, to the pater. not only to have secured the posnal affe&ion he had for his present feflor from inconvenience, but children, and the regard due to pof- to have supported his title with terity, as to countenance principles becoming fplendour. If occawhich might be subversive of those fons occurred when his majesty honors and that rank which he had found it difficult to employ all received and was bound to tranf- the talents, ardour, and activity of mit? Such an argument was ab. individuals, according to their zeal furd -- but it also deserved public and merit, it was imputable to the refutation; it was unfair, uncandid, vast fund of abilities and energy and untrue. After more obferva in the nation, which rendered it tions of this nature, his lordfhip perplexing where to make a preferdeclared he considered it as his du. ty to himself, his family, his king, He then came to the consideraand his country, to move, “ that tion of the conduct of the war. an address might be presented to That the allies had not been as fuchis majesty, humbly requesting him cessful as they expected, he was to dismiss from his councils his ready to admit, and also that such minister, the first lord of the trea- accidents had happened as were in. sury, whose pernicious measures cidental to all wars; but he hoped had deprived him of the confidence all parties would acknowledge that of the country.”

the exertions of this country had

been

ence.

been unparalleled in the page of hif- taph upon the infatuation of minitory, and had been attended with sters, and, in the language applied unparalleled success; our naval to the memory of fir Christopher viétories had been more brilliant Wren, by pointing out his sublime than ever before diitinguished any production, that astonishing piece age, and it appeared peculiarly hard of architecture, the cathedral of that all the honour, all the praise, St. Paul, he might exclaim and all the glory should be reaped

Si monumentum quæris, circumspice. by individuals, whilst all the centure and all the responsibility were

The marquis of Towofhend and thrown on minifters.

the earl of Warwick opposed the Lord Hay (earl of Kinnoul) faid motion. The latter said he was that he never was more surprised convinced there was a considerthan to hear a motion of this im- able faction deeply infected with portant nature-no less than for re- French principles in this counmoving the prime-minister of the try, and it was not impossible that country from his high station, a part were to be found within without one fingle proot of miscon- the walls of the two houses of pardućt whatever brought against hiin. liament. He would advise noble He praised the conduct of the war, lords not to indulge themselves in and gloried in the fucceffes. He those irritating and intemperate extherefore gave the motion his de pressions which too frequently cided negative, and only observed were uttered. He was forry to read further, that lord Rodney's family such language had passed in another were perfectly fatisfied with his re house for granting the people all muneration.

they asked. He was for granting ail Lord Suffolk desired to retract such rights as were demanded in a part of what he he had said relative constitutional manner, but not to to admiral Rodney; he believed the those who demanded them with: penfion had been rightly stated by arms in their hands. the noble lord - still, however, it The earl of Derby expressed his was certain that this brave officer astonishment that any advice Niould was afterwards, from a variety of be thought necessary for their lordlaw-fuits, reduced to a state of ships respecting the language they great poverty, and his body for a ought to use in that house ; for him confiderable time seised upon, and self, he always endeavoured to use denied the rites of burial.

parliamentary language, and was not The duke of Norfolk scrupled conscious of any failure in this not to condemn the measures of ad- point. He was apt indeed to speak ministration, which, he contended, warmly, and it was his duty to do only required to be fairly and cri. so, when he decribed the miscon tically exan ined to be univer, duct or incapacity of ministers, and sally reprobated. The noble lord the pernicious effects of bad mea(Grenville) had infinuated that the fures. Allusions were made to wiat charges were not substantiated passed in another house, and disapupon facts; and demanded proofs : probation manifested on granting the proofs were every where : they rights to men with arms in their presented themselves to every eye; hands. He hoped they had not yet they made impreffions upon every procured those arms, and that they heart; they composed a living epi never would: but if it ever Boula

be the case, he was convinced the plorable condition, and they could impolitic and oppreffive measures not too foon, be deprived of the adopted by the present ministers power of continuing to do so ; tbe would be the occasion of those dif- war had been conducted, he faid, astrous consequences.

in a shameful manner; the wealth Lord Romney said he was con- and resources of the country excerned to hear persons on all fides, pended in making conquests of dir. both within and withont the walls iant settlements, when the Freach of that house, talk of the situation Mould have been attacked nearer of the country in the moft desponde home. His lordhip applauded ing manner; for his own part, he the plan of lord Romney, and thought very differently of it, and did not doubt but it might produce that nothing was wanting to re a considerable Sum of money; but store it to its former itrength but it was a question how far the house active energy. He was clear that of commons might approve of mo. a plan might be adopted which ney being raised to carry on the wat would raise an immenle fum, and through any channel but their own. would serve to convince the ene. He concluded with giving his hearmy of the Britih spirit this was, ty assent to the motion. toʻset on foot a subscription for a The earl of Carlisle lamented, voluntary gift, as far as the genero- that the finest opportunity of forsity and circumstances of indivi. cing the enemy to make peace had duals would, allow. He would fub. been loft by the conduct of the scribe five thousand pounds, and admiralty, which had given fuch thought there would easily be found absurd orders to admiral Colpoys a hundred thousand who would Had we destroyed the Breft fleet, subscribe their one hundred each, we Mould have ended the war. He proposed that this should be The marquis of Lansdowne blampaid by instalments, for instance heed the admiralty on this occafion would commence on the ift of Ja. also. He said he would sooner fee nuary 1798, and pay five hundred one minister justly punished than pounds a month, so that in ten see twenty changes. It was not a months he thould have paid the change of men but measures which whole. Each subscriber to do the he wished, consequently did not fame, according to the fums fub- approve the motion : changes of {cribed, even to low as fifty : the ministers had sometimes done mifa, whole of the money to be fubject to chief to the country. Sir Robert the controul of parliament-Such Walpole was removed by popular a measure, if carried into execution, clamour at the time he was carry, would counteract any impreffion ing the Inking fund into execution, which might be made on the French and the nation suffered very conga government to our disadvantage, derably by his removal. 'The al. by the desponding ideas of fomne as teration he proposed would be in to our ftate, or by the language of the {ystem of government, which others as to the mismanagement of ought to be conducted on the old our ministers.

conftitutional principles of the The earl of Moira thought the country. Any one who wished present motion highly neceffary; to know the present fyftem, the mismanagement of minifters might peruse the army extraordi, nad brought us to this present de. naries, and would find millions

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