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to power; it was against the sense ed facts: such was the sentiment of the majority of the then house of conveyed by the general election, commons, and armed with the affording conviction to every cancorrupt power of the crow.., he did mind, that if the representative ftood, and successfully refifted the fyftem had been perfect, or the house of commons. He then de practice pure, the new parliament clared it was not the representative would decidedly have voted against of the people--that it did not (for the continuance of the war. How it opposed him) speak the sense of could the people have confidence in the nation. What was the doc- the house that had countenanced trine here promulgated ? That the mifreprefen ation throughthe whole house of commons, so long as it course of it! He gave it as his obeyed the will of the minister, opinion, that however averse genwas the genuine representative of themen might be to any specific the country, but the moment it proposition of reform, if they were presumed to be the cenfor of friendly to the principle they ought government, it became nothing ! to vote for the question, that it Ministers had affirmed that the might be freely difcuffed in the present war was popular at the committee, in hopes that the united commencement ; the fame had wisdom of the house might Thape been said of the American war; out something which might be genor would he deny, that through nerally acceptable. There was the artful macinations of mini- enough of enterprise and vigour fters, a clamour had been raised, in the plan to restore order, and not which they called the voice of enouzh to produce confulion. Mr. the nation : but whatever had been Fox thought the best and most adthe case in the outset of both, viseable plan of reform was to ex. the progress in the public opinion tend the right of election to househad been the fame in each; it had keepers; it was the most perfect indisputably changed, though no recurrence to the first known and change had been produced by the recorded principles in our constigeneral election in the American tution, according to the celebrated war, and the present war had been Glanville, in all cates where no uopopular for the two last years in particular right intervened. The England, though its voice had not common-law right of paying foot been heard in the choice of repré- and lot was the right of election in sentatives. Mr. Fox then pointed the land; but it had been said, exout the cooduct of the candidates tending the right of voting to housein populous places, on hoth sides, keepers, might in fome respects be during the ele&tions. The oppofi compared to universal suffrage; he tion boasted of having reprobated himself bad always deprecated unithis war, and refifted every one of versal fuffrage, not so much on the measures by which government account of any confufion to which had brought the country into their it might lead, 'as because we.fhould present fituation. The minifterial in reality lose the object we desired party apologised for their, paft of to obtain: it would embarrafs and fence in supporting it, they used prevent the deliberate voice of the whining canting explanatiouis, they country from being beard, and described alarms, and misrepresent- swould dray forth numbers whe, 1797

Q without

without deliberation, would implis for the empire, they olight not alto citly act on the wiil of others. The gether to be guided by instructions beft plan of representation was dictated by local intereits-yet he that which should bring into acti- could not approve of the ungravity the greatest number of inde. cious manner in which he somependent voters-it would be a de- times had heard expressions of confe&tive systein which would bring tempt for the sentiments of constiin regiments of soldiers, of fervants, tuents; they were made with a bad and of persons whose low condi- grace in the first feflion of a septen. rion necessarily curbed the inde- nial parliament, especially if they pendence of their minds; univer- thould come from individuals wbo fal fuffrage would extend the right had not fcrupled to court the fato three millions of men, but there .vour of the very fame conitituents, were not more than seven hundred by declaring that they voted against thousand houses which would come their conscience in compliance with within the plan proposed, and he their delire, as was the case of an - begged that gentlemen would de- alderman of the city of London, cide whether it would not be suffi. There was one class of constituents, ciently extensive for deliberation on indeed, whose instructions it was the one hand, and sufficiently li. considered as the implicit duty of mitted for order on the other. But members to obey. When gentle. would this reform protect us against men represented populous towns bribery and corruption? He dared and cities, then it was disputable : not say that it would; we had whether they ought to obey their

alas !"for a course of years, habi- voice, or follow the dictates of their - fuated the people to that fordid vice, own conscience; but if they repres

and we certainly could not wonder sented a noble lord, or duke, it bethat a poor man Mould not scruple came no longer a question of doubt; to take five guineas for his vote, he was not a man of honour who when he knows that the noble lord would not obey the orders of a line in his neighbourhood took four or gle constituent, he was to have no five hundred; but it might be conscience, no liberty, no discrehoped, that when this banesul en tion of his own; he was sent bere couragement was removed, there by a lord or duke, and if he would regulations would tend to diminish, , not follow the inftructions he had . it not remove, the evil. Contracts received, he could be no gentle. ing the duration of parliament man. Mr: Fox warinly reprobated would be one trong connective, this coniect - Is a gentleman (faid and this would be easy, by the he) to a t in opposition to the fenscheme on whichi elections would timents of the city of Westminster, be made. Mr. Fox'then adverted or London, or Bristol, with imputo a queftion: oftem discussed both nity, and if he ventures to disagree within and without those walls, with a nobleinan, whose represen. " hox far reprefentatives ought to tative he is, must he be regarded as be bound by the instructions of unfit for the society of men of ho. their confiituents." He acknow. nour? It was, he observed, the ty. jedged that he inclised to the opi- raniiy of corruption, the confenion, though he did not entiely quence of a number of peers pos. cipoutc it), that having to legillate Selling an overweening interest in

the

the country, so that a gentleman who had plunged us into our prewas no longer permitted to hold his fent state retire from the post to ftuation, excepting he acted agree., which they are unequal; and let us, ably to the dictates of thete power with an earnest delire of recovera ful families. Having hown this ing the country, pursue this modeto be the state of representation, he rate plan of reform under the aubegged to know what remedy there spices of men likely to conciliate could be for these corruptions but the public mind. A new adminireform? If we would not apply it stration ought to be formed, but our fate was inevitable. Our most Mr. Fox folemnly avowed he had illuftrious patriots, and the men no wiil of making part of it, and whose names were dearest to Eng. though he would readily and frelifhmen, had long ago pointed it nuoully give his support to any out as the only means of redressing measures which 'would restore our national grievances. Sir George outraged privileges, his defire as to Saville had been its moft strenuous himself was retirement. He gave advocate, and the venerable Cam- his vote to the proposition of his hou den was its steady supporter-nay, nourable friend. Mr.Burke himself acknowledged its Sir William Dolben expressed propriety for correcting the abuses much satistaction at the propriety of our Tystem. The advantages in of the motion, and the moderation the present case would be many; of those who supported it. Some we mould ward off the evil of con- thing of the kind was absolutely fusion growing out of accumulated necessary to save the country. He discontent; we fould fave' our wished the plan might be adopted, felves from the calamities which and remain three months on the had befallen Ireland; we Mhould table for the confideration of memsatisfy the moderate, and detach bers. from the violent their numbers and For the motion 63 their converts. Pride, obstinacy, Against it - - 258 and insult, must end in concessions, and those concessions be humble in The parliamentary feffion was proportion to insolence: now was concluded on the 20th of July, in the moment to prevent degrada, the usual manner, by a speech tion; the monarchy, the aristocra. from the throne, for which fee our cy, the people themselves might Public Papers, p. (237) of this ve now be saved. Let those ministers · lume.

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CHAP. VIII.

THE

The War-French land a Body of Troops on the Coaf of Pembroke Lirona

Surrender as Prisoners without Refstance-Conjectures as to the Object of this ExpeditionThe Spanish Fleet defeated by Admiral Sir Fohn Jervis, off Cape St. Vineent, and four Ships of the Line captured - The Dutch Fleet completely defeated off Camperdown, by Admiral Duncan- The Britifs Forces, under Admiral Nelson, defeated at Teneriffe-French Vefels captured and destroyed by the Squadron under Sir J. B. Warren-Weft Iosdies Trinidad taken by the British Forces under Sir Ralph Abercrombie and Admiral HarveyUnsuccessful Attack at Porto Rica-Proposal for raising black Regiments in ske West Indies--negatived. THE war between Great Bri- broke fide. They were first def

tain and the French republic cried from the heights above St. was, during this year, almost ex. Bride's bay, and the squadron clusively confined to naval opera. then appeared to confift of two tions, in which the skill and activi- frigates and two smaller velles, ly of the British seamen were eini- steering from the Bristol channel nently conspicuous, and almost in- round St. David's Head.

They variably crowned with victory. displayed English colours, but were

In one folitary instance, the foon fufpected to be enemies. AfFrench directory a:tempted to put ter turning $t. David's Head, and in practice their pompous threats failing a few miles to the northof an invasion of England; but ward in Cardigan bay, they cast the attempt appeared as if intend single anchors to the north of a ed literally to burlesque the pro. Imali promontory under Lan. ject; and to assure the government winwr. They remained there, of Great Britain, that nothing seri, however, but a thort time, but qus was intended from their exten- moved farther up towards Finlive preparations. On the 22d of gard, and finally anchored in a February, that part of the coast of small bay near Lanonda church, Devonshire, which lies at the mouth when they hoisted French colours, of the British channel, was alarmed and put out their boats. The cliff by the appearunce of an enemy's is here exceedingly steep and rugforce, consisting according to re- ged, and a party of them were ob port of the frigates, which, as was served by a country man climbing stated in a letter published by au up singly on their hands and knees, thority, entered the little port of and throwing their muskets before Ilfracombe on that coast, scuttled them. The spot which they made some of the merchant fhips there, choice of for their landing, prov. and attempted to destroy all the ed that they acted in concert with vessels in the harbour. Their stay no party in the country, and was, however, not of long conti- that they had no persons among nuance, and they steered directly a-them who were well acquainted cross the channel towards the Pem- with the coast. As soon as this

party

party had gained the alcent, they circumstances under which the bofet fire to the furze and other com- dy of French troops under his bufibles, to apprise their comrades command were landed, having of their success. The debarkation rendered it unnecessary to atte:npt of the whole was completed before any military operation, he prothe morning of the 23d, when posed a capitulation.”—The reply numbers of them dispersed over of lord Cawdor was, that he could the country to procure provisions only treat on the terms of their furand apparel. In these predatory rendering prisoners of war, which excurfions they ransacked those was presently agreed to, and on the houses which they found abandon- fucceeding day, at noon they laid ed, but took very few things from down their arms. The frigates and those in which they found inhabi- other vessels, as soon as they had tants; they committed no wanton disembarked the men, fet fail for murder. Two of the countrymen France; but, as if every thing were were killed, but they provoked adverse to this absurd and unfortutheir fate by their own rashness, nate expedition, the two frigates, and one almost deserved it; for, la Refiltance of 48 guns, and la after the Frenchman had surren- Constance of 24, were captured dered, and in fa&t resigned his muf- on the oth of the following month, ket, the Welchman aimed a blow as they were standing in for Brest at him with the butt end of it, when harbour, by the St. Fiorenzo and he drew his bayonet which he had Nymphe frigates, under the comnot relinquished, and ran his an. mand of fir Harry Neale. tagonift through the body.

The conjectures have been variThe alarm was at first general, ous with respect to the object of but the numbers and situation of this expedition. The troops which the enemy soon appeared equally were landed were said by some to contemptible. • They did not ex have confitted of a number of the ceed 1400 men ; they were without Vendean insurgents, who had enfeld-pieces, though they had seven- lifted into the service of the repubty cart-loads of powdeç and ball, and lic, but could not be trusted in a quantity of hand-grenades. The their own country. By others they utmost exertions were made with- were represented as a band of galley out lots of time by the principal men llaves, and other criminals collectin the county, and before night a- ed from the prisons of Brest, and bout 660 men were collected wholanded in England inerely to quarmight be termed foldiers (though ter them upon the enemy.

This they had never been in action), report is most generally believeti, consisting of militia, fencibles, and and is countenanced by some deyeomen cavalry, besides a confide- bates in the French councils, in rable multitude of colliers, and which Trugnet, the minister of maothers who swelled the number rine, was vehemently censured for without much increafing the force. having planned so disgraceful a Of this party lord Cawdor ailun- measure. In opposition. to this ed the command, and, on approach- opinion, however, it may be mening the enemy, he received at about tioned, that the commander of the ten o'clock at night a letter by a party declared, that he had with French officer, figned “ Tate chef him 600 of the best troops in de brigade," intimating “ that the France, veteran and experienced

foldiers;

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