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tendant, to give effect to those bold sena, and were completely defeated and unprecedented- mancuvres with the loss of 600 prisoners and which he employed.
three pieces of cannon. The atIt was the latter end of Decem. tack of the Austrians it appears ber before the French commander was pretty general along the French prepared to take the field. The line; for at the same moment that army of Alvinzi amounted at this the advanced posts of Maslena were time, according to report, to 50,000 aftailed, the division under general men, and was posted on the Brenta Joubert was also attacked at Co. and in the Tyrol; while the repub- rona. The Austrians at first gained lican army extended along the fome light advantages, and became Adige, occupied the line of Monte- masters of a redoubt. General bello, Corona, and Rivoli, with ad- Joubert, however, foon rallied bis vanced guards before Verona and soldiers, retook the redoubt by Porto Legnago. Mantua ftill re- ftorm, forced the enemy to retire mained in a state of close blockade. to their former poltion, and took According to a letter from the em- upwards of 300 prisoners. peror to general Wurmser, the gar Repulsed but not defeated, howrison must have been reduced 10 ever, the Austrians renewed the at. -the greatest extremity, in the article tack on Joubert the following day, of provisions especially, having no and with such a superiority of force, animal food but the fieth of their as compelled him to evacuate Cohorfes.
rona, and take a position before The Austrian army commenced Rivoli. This movement of the its hostile movements on the 7th enemy left the French general po of January, and on the following longer in doubt with respect to the day the division which had been intentions of Alvinzi. It was now pofted at Padua attacked the ad. evident that the Auftrian general vanced guard of general Angereau, with his main force was delirous of which was pofted at Bevelagna, be- penerrating his line by the way of fore Porto Legnago. After a smart Rivoli, and of reaching Mantua by skirmish, the adjutant-general Du- that route; the force with which faux who commanded there found this attack was to be made was at himself under a peceflity of retreat- least double in number to that un. ing to St. Zeno, and the next day der general Joubert. Buonaparte 10 Porto Legnago, having been now perceived that no time was to enabled by his resistance to give be loft. He ordered immediately time to the whole line to be fully large reinforcements from the diapprised of the march of the enemy, vision of Maslena, and other quarand prepared to receive them. ters, to Rivoli, where he arrived in,
Buonaparte was himself at this person with his staff the same day time at Bologna. He, however, loft at midnight. The difpofitions of no time in detaching 2000 men general Joubert, though excellent who were quartered there towards for a small division, he found by the Adige, for the relief of Auge. no means adapted to the reinforce. reau, and iinmediately after set out ments which he had brought; he .,for Verona, before which place the therefore immediately ordered them
Auftrians appeared on the morning to resume some of the positions of the 12th. They attacked the which they had evacuated, and in advanced guard under general Mal- particular the gate of St. Marco,
which was the key of the whole. lions to face this new column; and Buonaparte, with the officers com- caused four pieces of light artillery pofing his staff, spent the whole to be planted to as to cannonade the Dight in reconpoitering the ground, right of their line. In the mean and examining the position of the time a reinforcement under the cremy, who occupied a formidable coinmand of general Rey, which Line of 25,000 strong; their right had been tardy in its advances, at Caprino, and their left behind fortunately arrived and took a poSt. Marco.
fition exactly in the rear of the coThe Austrian general, who had lumn which had turned the French. arracged his pian of attack fome Buonaparte now pressed the attack days btfore, expected neither the with the utmost vigour; and in less presence of Buonaparte, nor the than a quarter of an hour the whole reinforcements wbich Joubert re- column, consisting of 4000 men, ceived almost at the instant of at- laid down their arins. The Autack. While such were the dispo- ftrians were now every where put fitions of the generals, the right to the route, and pursued by the proved extremely unquiet to the conquerors during the wbole of out-posts on both lides, who kept the night. The French general reup almost a coniiant fire upon each lates, that in the courte of their ocher; aod the resump:ion of the fight a body of 500 men furrenpoft at St. Marco produced a feri- dered as prisoners to a party of 50 ous engagement. At day-break on republicans. the 141h of January general Joubert The Austrians remained still with one part of his divilon at- masters of Corona, but they were tacked the enemy upon the declin now disabled from acting on the vity of the bill of St. Marco. The offensive. Buonaparte, therefore, other part occupied the centre, and ordered general Joubert to attack the left was chiefly composed of them the next day, should they be the reinforcements which had ar- ftill so imprudent as to retain pof. rived during the night. The Au- · sellion of that place; and he then ftrian general ftill remained igno- hastened to encounter new difficule rant, it appears, both of the presence ties, and to reap fresh laurels. A of the commander in chief, and of column of the enemy, consisting of the arrival of the reinforcemeuts. 10,000 men, under general Provera, His plans were therefore discon- had passed the Adige on the night of certed, and he acted in the dark. the 14th, and obliged the French The battle notwithstanding was general Guyeux, who guarded the long and obftinate, and in its com: Adige in this quarter, to fall back 'mencement the French were driven from Ronco. He, therefore, detachfrom some of their poils; wliile a ed general Victor with a strong reinfreih body of she Austrians ad- forcenient to Roverbella, and ore vanced to the eminences between dered Massena also to take the same the Adige and the lake of Guarda, route, to stop, if posible, the march turned the flank of the French, and of the Auftrians. General Joubert, completely cut off their communi in the mean time, faithfully ads cation with Verona and Peschiera. hered to the instructions of the In this embarrasing situation the commander in chief. General general loft nothing of his presence Murat had marched the whole of of mind. He detached two batta- the night of the 14th with a party of 1798.
light infantry, and appeared in the was greatly inferior to that of the morning on the heights of Monte- assailants; but the French general baldo, which commanded Corona; was well entrenched. He, therewhile the Austrians, who were post- fore, received the summons of Proed there, were vigorously attacked in vera with no other reply, than that front by general Joubert. Perceiv. “ he would fight, but not furrening, therefore, their retreat cut off, der.” The Austrian general atthey were, after some resistance, tacked the poft, but found it imthrown into the 'utmost confusion, possible to carry it by force. Thus and almost the whole party were baffled in his main design, Provera either drowned in attempting to next turned his attention to another swim across the Adige, or made post, La Favorita, which (secondprisoners. In these engagements ed by a sortie from the garrison, (which are denominated by the which he had concerted with French the battle of Rivoli) the Wurmser) he expected to force, conquerors took 13,000 prisoners and by that means make good his and 9 pieces of cannon.
entrance into Mantua. The design The column of general Provera, did not escape, however, the pene. ten thousand strong, in the mean tration of Buonaparte, and io pretime continued their march, and vent the junction, he saw no other forced the passage of Anguiari. means than to surround the column General Guyeux had rallied and of Provera, and force it to furrenunited all the forces which were der. He had previously dispatched posted in his vicinity, which, how- general Serrurier to La Favorita, ever, did not exceed 1,500 men ; with all the forces that he could with so inadequate a power he was hastily withdraw from the other not able to force the enemy to re posts of blockade; and he now orcross the river, but he harrassed and dered reinforcements from different impeded their march for some time, divisions of his army, who, by the and made nearly 300 prisoners. most rapid movements that are re. As Mantua was the object of gene- corded in history, arrived in time ral Provera, his advances were ra to effect their purpose. An hour pid; and general Angereau, who before day-break, on the morning had collected his forces with the of the 16th, the Austrians attacked design of falling on the column of La Favorita, and general WurmProvera, between Anguiari and Ro- ser, at the same moment, ordered a verquier, could only come up with spirited sortie from the garrison, to the rear of his divifion.
After a support the assailants, and divert warm conflict, however, he suc- the attention of the enemy. The ceeded in cutting off the whole of detachment from the garrison, howthe rear guard of the Austrian ever, met with fo discouraging a recolumn, and took 2000 prisoners, ception from the column of genewith 16 pieces of cannon. ral Victor, one of the detachments
Notwithstanding these impedi- which had marched during the ments, general Provera arrived on night, that it was compelled to rethe 15th of January at the head of turn to the fortress without being 6,000 men, at the suburb of St. able to effect a junction with ProGeorge, one of the posts where vera, after leaving the field coverMantua was blockaded. The force ed with dead and with prisoners. at this post, under general Miolis, At the same moment Serrurier ad.
vanced in order to block up Pro- pelled to yield, with the loss of 300 vera between this poft and St. prisoners. Trent fubmitted to the George's. Disorder and terror republicans with little or no refiftnow pervaded the enemy's ranks, ance; and, in pursuing the flying and the general folicited a capitu- enemy, the French made at sc. lation. The prisoners who sur- Michael 800 prisoners. sendered amounted to 6,000 in The fall of Mantua was an inevifantry and 700 cavalry, with 22 table consequence of the total defeat pieces of cannon. Thus, perished of the Austrian armies. It surrenthe fifth great army detached by dered on capitulation, the 2d of Austria for the support of its Ita. February. The terms were ho. lian territories, and to avert the nourable, as the valour and good deftru&tion which now seemed to conduct of the veteran Wurmler impend over the capital itself. and his brave garrison deferved.
The respective divisions of the The garrison were prisoners, but French army continued to harass marched out with inilitary hothe defeated and dispersed remnants nours; and the old marechal himof the Austrian force. The divi- felf, and his suite, were excepted son of Matfena repaired, on the from the humiliating condition of 23d, to Vicenza, and from thence appearing as prisoners of war - he to Bassano in pursuit of the enemy, was then upwards of 70 years of who had retreated to the other side age. It was allerted, that upwards of the defiles of the Brenta. A de- of 5,000 horses had been devoured tachment from this division, under by the garrison in the course of general Menard, came up with the blockade; and thus far is cer. them at Carpenedolo, and, after a tain, that the French found exceedwarm conteft, made 800 prisoners. ingly few remaining, on taking On the 27th, the division of gene- poffeffion of the fortreis., ral Joubert also came up with the Another immediate consequence rear-guard of the Austrians, and, of these victories of Buonaparte after a light skirmilli, made 300 was the invasion of the papal terriprisoners. The Austrians, after tories. The court of Rome could this, retreated towards Mory and not be expected to be extremely faTorbole. But here they were al- vourable to the French interests, failed by general Murat, who em- but it had adopted a timid and barked with 200 men, and landed wavering plan of policy, confiftent at the latter place; general Vial, al- at once with its own weakness and so, at the head of the light infantry, hoftility to the French. Confident, after a moft severe march through however, in these latter exertions of the snows and over the steepeft the Austrians, the pope, it is allert. mountains, turned their position, ed, had even sent fuccours into the and obliged 450 to furrender. Ge field, to the army of Alvinzi, and bad neral Joubert, about the same time, strained every nerve for the expula entered Roveredo. The Austrians fion of the invaders. · The division had entrenched themselves deeply of general Victor was, therefore, in the defiles of Calliano, and ap- ordered to penetrate to Rome prepeared disposed to dispute the en- vious to the surrender of Mantua ; trance of the republicans into and the capitulation was scarcely Trent; but, pressed by the generals signed before Buonaparte set off in Beliard and Vial, they were como person, to fuperintend the opera
R 2 tions
tions of this army. The invaders reprieve which was granted him on Nept at Imola, the firft town with- this occasion. For while the in the papal dominions, on the ift French commander was advanof February. The refiitance of the cing towards Rome, the emperor, papal troops was feeble, and they by exertions almost incredible, was were overpowered with but little re-inforcing his discomfited army, or loss on the part of the French. In rather the remnants of it; and the a few days the French proceeded to command was given to the archLoretto, and took poffeffion of the duke Charles, whose victorious ca. famous Madonna, which was only reer on the Rhine had inspired the a wooden image; they found also court of Vienna with the warmeft in that place a treasure of about hopes of his fuccefs, even when three millions of livres. The oppofed to fo consummate a mafter whole inarche of Ancona submitted of the military art as Buonaparte. with very little fhew of resistance; In the beginning of March, the and on the 19th Buonaparte had French army occupied the banks of his head-quarters at Tolentino. The the Piave and Lavis; and that of the pope, now reduced to the lowest emperor, under the command of extremity, and deprived of his allies the archduke, the oppofire ftore of by the fortune of war, addressed a the Piave, with its centre behind fubmiffive epifle to the victorious the Cordevoli, and supported on general, in which he solicited ear- its right by the Adige from the Gde neftly an amicable termination of of Salurne. On the approach of the contest; and dispatched two general Massena on the roth of ecclefiaftics, with full powers to March, however, the Austrians conclude a treaty. By the terms thought proper to evacuate the line of this treaty, his holiness renoun- .of Cordevoli, and to march to ced all connection with the famous Bellurne. On the 12th, the divicoalition of crowned heads; en- fion of general Serrurier crolled the gaged to diiband the troops which Piave at day-break, and the Auftri. had been raised for the support of ans immediately evacuated their the war; and to fhut his ports against camp of La Campagna. On the all the powers at war with the repub- fame day, general Guyeux pafled Jic. He agreed, without reserve, to the Piave at Ospedaletto; on the the annexation of Avignon, and the 13th, he fell in with the rear-guard county of Venaislın to the French, of the enemy, and, after a flight and also transferred to the republic contest, took 100 prisoners. The the legations of Bologna, Ferrara, division of Massena, in the mean and Romagna. In conclufion,' he time, having arrived at Bellurne, contented to pay to the conqueror's pursued the Austrians on their rethe sum of 30 millions of livres, treat towards Cadore, completely -20 of them in specie, and the reft hemmed in their rear guard, and in diamonds and other valuables, took 700 prisoners, among whom with 16,000 horfes, as the ransom was the general Lusignan, who comof that remnant of his dominions of manded their centre division. which he was still permitted to en On the 16th, the division of ge. joy the precarious pofTefTion. neral Guyeux proceeded from Por
'To the exertions of Auftria in denove, that of general Bernadotte making fresh preparations, the from Sacile, and that of general pope was probably indebted for the Serrurier from Pafiano, all of them