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obtain it, would comprehend the ho- purport of the proposed address! nour and security of our allies, and Why, it was neither more nor less applauded that prince to whom, than a recommendation to his maunder the direction of his gallant jesty to acknowledge and approve brother, we were indebted for a fe- that system he had formerly reprories of military exploits, which in bated and opposed. If there were themselves were likely to expedite any wisdom in negotiation now, the negotiation.

the same wisdom should have been Earl Fitzwilliam addressed the manifested four years ago ; for the house in rather an eccentric ha- same causes existed then, and prov, rangue. Their lord ships, he said, ed the neceflity of war, which exist would recollect that he had been an at the present moment. advocate for the war at its com Was the system which had rouzmencement, from an opinion of its ed our attention, and demanded our necessity; and he was now the exertionsg now extin&t? Their lordmore confirmed in it, from the ex. fhips ought to compare the views perience of a long train of events. of France at that period, with the When the war began, it was asked plans they had prosecuted now. whether it would be prudent to The great and powerful govern; draw the sword, not only in the ments of Europe were not the first defence of an ally, but for the pre- who were attacked by the spirit of servation of the civil happiness of aggression; but the inferior and fee: Europe : it was generally admitted ble states had felt their overbearing not only to be prudent but indif- influence, and their subversive aupensable: the designs of the enemy thority. tended to the deftruction of every Such instances announced their established government, and the to- intention, and success was to afford tal subversion of order in society; the means of extending their prinnor had those designs been aban- ciples. He instanced Sardinia. No doned. He had trusted, that he sooner was the king compelled to should not have heard a word of submit to a peace with France, than negotiation like that which had it was succeeded by their interbeen mentioned, and was surprised ference in the internal administrato find such expressions used as tion of his government; they in. were common at the end of an or- fifted on his restoring to their lidinary war. When he found the berty, and to their effects, all the address re-echoed to the crown persons who had been condemned vague expressions concerning ne to imprisonment or penalties for gotiation, without the least atten- propagation of anarchical doctrines. tion to the grand principle on At Rome they fignalised their tri. which the war commenced, he was umphs by impoling the same de. constrained to declare he should grading conditions. In Berlin the stand in opposition to it.

Itandard of infurre&tion was reared; To restore order; to defend the the national cockade was worn to ftates of Europe against the dangers attract partisans, and propagate the which threatened thein ; to protect principles of which it was the em. persons and property from a fatal blem, devastation, and suppress the ten Were their lordships prepared to dency of innovating and pernicious submit to such indignities, to allow doctrines, were the often Gible objects the national cockade to be worn in of the war. What then was the this country by every man whom


ffie French directory might choose not wish to expose the country to to consider as a Frenchman? By these disasters, they would not con. arms alone these attempts and these cur in giving his majesty an advice disgraces were to be refifted; and which would strike at the interest to theft evils we expose ourselves if of the state, and weaken the secu. we conclude any peace with the rity of his government. enemies of established government, From an observation of the nos and of the moral and religious or: ble lord who seconded the address, der of society. Whatever confi. it appeared, that it was not merely dence might be placed in the loyal. for ourselves but for our allies that ty of the people at home, what this negotiation was to be institutcould be said of our distant poflef- ed. He doubted how far ministers fions? Were our colonies safe ? were authorised to include them in Were the West India islands in a the measures they were about to fituarion in which we could rely adopt : if we could gather the sene on their tranquillity? What had timents of the emperor from his been the effect of French princi- conduct in circumstances apparentples in their own settlements: What ly the most desperate, he would not ravage had they not extended to condescend to treat with the enemy our own islands of St. Vincent's of established order and governand Grenada

ment. There was a subject on · The effe&t of their system was which he proposed a question to to overthrow all the barriers by ministers: Did they mean to recog which property was protected, and nife France, circumfcribed within the tendency was realised by the her ancient boundaries, or the repractice. Even in glancing over public of France bounded by the the proceedings of their legislative Rhine and the Alps? For a series of bodies, he had found that one of years out ancestors had ftruggled to their reporters states, that the fale limit the territories of France, and of the national property (that is, to maintain the balance of Furope; what was the property of individu: and it was no trivial consideration als) is the pivot of the revolution. whether this aggrandifement was to Were their lordfhips prepared to be acknowledged, and these acquifubmit to the mandates of the dis fitions fanctioned. This, however, rectory? At their command were was a secondary consideration with they readỹ to let loose all who had him for his prime objection was been doomed to punishment for re- to treat with France, constituted as dition, and attacks upon the con- that government was. But the ef ftitution of this country? to fet fects which our commerce would at liberty Mr. Yorké to recal from sustain by its aggrandiferent were Botany Bay the Jacobins who not indifferent : it was no light res, had been transported thither? flection that Holland was under the When they had confented to dif- cóntroul of the enemy; that Lego band our troops and dismantle outhorn, once lo important in war fleet, now in the height of its from the supplies which it furnitha power, did they imagine

we should ed, and, in peace, as the great mart be able to cope with the forces of our commodities and manufacof the directory, wielding the com- tures, was now taken from us, All bined strength of the navies of the coasts of Europe were now shus Spaiä and Holland ? If they did against our commerce. la Italy


the eftablishment of a republic un- rife in their demands, and prolong der France would exclude our trade this miserable and unavailing conin that country; and unless the king teft, they should be confidered as of Naples came boldly forward to 'evils of the first magnitude ; they regst the enemy, the whole of the would be felt as fuch, not only by north of Italy would be inacceffible the people of the present day, but to our manufactures. By commerce by their pofterity for a length of our nation had flourished; what time to come. There was one part then was to be our ftuation when of the address which he could every port into which our com- not pass without a comment; that modities had flowed, was to be the tranquillity of the kingdom flut against us. We might treat had remained undisturbed, and with the French directory; but anarchy had been repreffed by the what traffic could our merchants wisdom and energy of the laws. maintain with individuals destitute It was with pleasure, his lordship of property, or poffeffing it with- faid, that he could bear his tefti. out security? The loss of Spain mony to this truth, that the trantoo was now certain; by whatever quillity of the kingdom had rename it was distinguished (whether mained undisturbed'; he believed a monarchy or a republic, was now it was owing to the love the people of little consequence) it was the bore to the laws of their country; tributary of France. Having thus but if, by the wisdom and energy reminded them of the principles on of the laws, an allusion was intendwhich the war was undertaken, hised to be made to the two extralordship moved, as an amendment, ordinary bills passed in the last par. “ that the house, impressed with liament, it would be indeed unthe justice and necessity of the pre- founded. Those bills were held sent war, would continue to give in abhorrence by the people, who his majesty a vigorous fupport in at the same time held in the higheft asserting the general cause of his respect the known constitutional majesty and his allies, and in pre- common law of the land. The ferving the dignity of the crown.” noble earl concluded with his fup

The earl of Guildford expressed port of the present address, conmuch fatisfaction that a measureceiving, he said, peace to be the which might lead to the restoration greateit blessing the country could of general tranquillity, had been with ; but he did not mean, hy to considered as the leading feature of doing, to preclude himself from his the address.

right to enquire at any future pe: It was the same in his estima- riod into the causes of the present tion, and, he believed, in that of calamitous contest, and the conduct every well-wisher to his country in of those who had plunged us into this kingdom.

it. If the achievements of the arch. Lord Grenville, after complia duke should operate, as he hoped menting his noble friend who mov. they would, as means of rational ed the address, totally differed from negotiation, they ought to be re- lord Guildford, who had asserted, garded as omens of happiness to us this was a miserable and unavailing and our ally; if, on the contrary, struggle; it was a struggle, he would they should revive hopes formerly maintain, that had already availed entertained, and cause the parties to us; and though prospects of peace

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tiglat be cut off, it would fill of maintaining this determination be of the utmost avail to this coun was the best pledge for our obtaintry. With regard to the bills, being honourable conditions. differed from him also entirely, and The earl of Abington spoke was convinced, they had contri against the address, and also against buted very greatly to preserve our the bills passed in the last session of internal tranquillity. Another no- parliament. There were rights of ble earl had stated it as inconfiftent the people which neither came from with our principles to treat with kings, lords, nor commons; and any government in France but that they could not take them away. of a monarchy. That the existence The motion palled in the aflisof a republic was an insuperable mative; but a moft fingular protest bar to negotiation, and that ino- was entered on the journals by earl narchy was indispensable, was a Fitzwilliam, the substance of which calumny which ministers bad every was as follows: feffion found it necessary to contra Difenticat. First. Because, by this dia. They had believed indeed address, unamended as it stands, that the best i!lue to the contest the sanction of the lords is given would be the re-establidhment of to measures as ill-judged with remonarchy in France; but they had gard to their object, as they are denever pledged themselves to an rogatory from the dignity of the opinion to extravagant, that with- crown. Solicitations for peace mus out this object no peace could be encrease the arrogance and ferocity obtained. It was ftrange the no- of the enemy of all nations; they ble 'earl should infer from the open- must fortify and fix the authority ing of the negotiation that the of an odious government over an worst terms would be concluded; enslaved people; they must impair they certainly were not prepared to the confidence of other powers in admit in the enemy any power the magnanimity of the Britislı to di&tate to our internal regula- councils, and inevitably tend to tions, or the overthrow of the con- break the spring of that energy ftitution ; neither surely was it a which in former tinies has characconsequence that our allies were to terised this high-minded nation. be abandoned; it certainly would Second. Because no peace can be unbecoining in him to answer be had with the usurped power now the questions that had been pro- exercising authority in France : the posed. But what security could we methods by which they obtained it, have against an interference fimilar the policy by which they hold it, to that which had been practised in and the maxims they have adopted, Sardinia?

openly profefied, and uniformly The king of Sardinia was com. aĉted on, towards the destruction of pelled to accept unworthy terms of all governments not forined on their peace; the difference of our fitua- model

, and subfervient to their dotion, by exempting us from the ne. mination. ceffity of the one, secured us from Third. Because the idea that the ignominy of the other. If just this kingdom is competent to deand honourable terms were refused fend itself, after the fubjugation by the enemy, we were preparing of all Europe, is presumptuous in to repel any other; and the power the extremne, and contrary to the

policy both of state and commerce Eighth. Because our eagerness in by which Great Britain hitherto has suing for peace may induce the flourished.

enemy to believe we are unable to Fourth. Because while the com- continue the war; which, in the mon enemy exercises his powër event of an actual peace, will tempt over the several states in the man- them to renew that conduct which ner we have seen, it is imposible brought on the present war; nei. long to preserve our trade, or our ther Mall we have the usual securinaval power; this hostile system ties for peace: they do not acseizes on the keys of the dominionis knowledge the obligation of laws of these powers, forces them, with. they have not the same interest out any particular quarrei, into di: or sentiment in the conservation of rect hostility with this kingdom, in- peace which have hitherto influsomuch that there is no harbour enced other governments; nor hall which we can enter without his we be better able to resist their permission, either in a commercial hostile attempts after a peace than or naval character.

at the present hour. If we remain Fifth. Because no fecurity can. armed, we cannot reap the ordibe hoped for’in our colonies and nary advantages of it in economy; plantations whilft this usurped pow. if we disarm, we shall be subject to er fall continue thus disposed and be driven into new wars, under thus constituted. The new system every circumftance of disadvan: leaves our colonies equally endan- tage. gered in peace as in war; it is Ninth. Because they frankly tell therefore that all ancient establish- us, that it is not our interest to ments are essentially at war for the make peace, for they regard it only sake of self-preservation.

as an opportunity of preparing fresh Sixth. Because it has been de- means for the annihilation of out clared from the throne, and adopted naval power. They do not con, by parliament, that there was no ceal that it will be their object to way to obtain peace but through wrest from us our maritime prethe ancient government long elta- ponderancy; to re-establish what blished in France. That govern- they call the freedom of the seas; ment has been solemnly recognised, and to carry to the Highest degree of and assistance and protection as so- prosperity those nations which they lemnly promised to those French- itate to be our rivals, which they men who should exert themselves charge us with unjustly attacking jn its restoration.

when we can no longer dupe, and Seventh. Because the example which they contemplate as furnithof the great change in the moral ing resources for our future humi: and political world, made by the liation and destruction: they false. usurpation, is, by the present pro- ly assert, that the English natiori cedure, confirmed in all its force. fupports with impatience the conIt is the first successful example in tinuance of the war, and has extorr. history of the subversion of the ed his majesty's overtures for peace government of a great country, by by complaints and reproaches: they the corruption of mercenary ar- studioully disjoin the English namies, to the destruction of the tion from its sovereign. whole proprietory body of the na. Tenth. Because, having acted tion.

throughout the course of this mo


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