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Thomas, a capuchin of Paris, com- 678572=:5 =252 725 2) 735,' 2 pery posed another; and Spon has affir- wie man. ed to his serage a rezgre vocabu “ DIMINUTITZS are much used hary, which he calls · Petit Dic- in conversation, by the modern
tionaire.' Marro Kordato's. Lexi- Grek; as by the Italians. They 'con' (as I have before observed) join ade and out to masculine or contains the mch tematic ana necter nens, and 17: and uz to hfis. There are grammas extent fer nine; as, .ari, w zażu, of Romeika. French and Italien, for a little mor- tie bog: layer.ma the ole of the natives who acqaire 7,50.-z,' a little foul - 2 Ettie girl; the e larguages. That of Benardi- But epecially to proper names, as no Piar?-13, of Turkih, Romeika, Ilezza, ra. and italian, printed in the Roman “ PRONOUNS. The genitive of charact: T, is that in most general pronouns perional are always added acceptation.
to nouns: 727-28, TITI-TO TATI: * With no pretensions to philo- 79, Taz,suzs, 7271:52:, 2:1315 logicai accuracy, I offer a summary -y, bas, ber, out, yout, brir 700. fetch, noticing the leading difcri “ Personal relatives are declina. minations, from claffical Greek, ble, and the others are supplied by and its analogy to the Italian and the invariable pronoun cza. There French, in grammatical confiruction. are likewie demonftratives and in. “ARTICLES. The modern Greeks terrogatives, &c. as in the ancient retain the articles 9, 9, 70, as uird Greek. by the ancients, which are constant " Venes. There are four kinds lý prefixed io nuans, as demontira- derivative-auxiliary silki, I am, tive of genders, of which the neu. 6E7%, I will, and sya. I bute, which ter is admitted as one. Pleurals te. form the teníes of the other; and mirite are made by the article a anomaluus, or impersonal, which asd the ancient dative, as ai quali are but few. .
* The derivative verbs are active, “Xorns are declined by articles, passive, and deponent only, and are pre pofitions, and inflections. Nouns divided into two claties, barytone maiculine and feminine have uni- and circumflex, the former of verially but three different termin which have the accent placed on rations in both numbers, and the the lati fydlable but one, as poden Deuter but two only. There are I cutite; and in the pathive ou the tire declections arranged according last fyllable but two, as yet you ale to the termination of the domina- I am curitten. The latter are accentive case.
tuated on the final fvllable, as ** ADJECTIVES are always pre- ayaww, I loze; and in the paffive fixed to nouns, as in English, ex on the last but one, as xyaaduzi, I cepting by the in:ervention of a am loved. The difference of roore:b, and are declinable with arti- jugations is determined by the first cies peculiar to the three genders. perion preient and the first perfon There are likewise five declen- perfect of the indicative mood. fons.
The barytones have four and the “ COMPARATIVES and SUPER- circumflex three conjugations. LATIVES (ange the positive as the “ There is no infinitive mood, ancients - 93005, 533079555,500ra- from which tenses in other lan995, adding likewise the prepoli- guages are deduced; but the potentions 125 and 20; o art: 06 tial with a conjunction is substituted,
25 yaraw, to write. The active par communicate, merely as a matter ticiple retembles the Italian gerund of curiofity, fome idea of the fruc
-7 P&Corras, writing; and the pas- ture of a language upon which the five is pure Greek-y papouleros, character of barbarism has been ofzuritter:.
ten fixed with less justice than that " Adverbs are mostly determin- of system and refinement upon
the ed by 2-a zaarana, very well. Italian and Spanish. The devia
• PREPOSITIONS all govern an tions from the original tongues accusative case.
have sprung from the same causes, “ These flight observations may and are nearly equal."
On the LATIN Terms used in NaturAL HISTORY, by the Rev. Joan
BRAND, A. M. &c.
(From the third Volume of the TRANSACTIONS of the LINNEAN SO
THE Latin has been adopted thor; or improprieties (verba impro
as the language of natural pria, Quint.), when, though so history; but the Latinity of the na- found, they are not to be found tural historians has undergone no used in the same sense. This must Imall censure.
be admitted: but it is here con“ By the adoption of the Latin tended, that it does not on this acas the common language of the count alone follow that they are so. fcience, in the degree in which it This is proved from the practice of obtains, new discoveries in it are the ancient grammarians in the inpropagated with great facility. 0. vention of technical terms, in conther branches of philosophy have junction with the authority of Tulnot had the fame good fortune; ly. and every European nation is be “ First, the use of a Latin primicome philofopbical: and thus, as tive or derivative, in a sense in which Monf. D'Alembert has observed, it does not occur in any pure Rohe who devotes himself to the cul man writer, is not necefsarily an tivation of any one of them, if he impropriety, technically so called; would keep his knowledge up to for if a considerable variation from the level of its state, is reduced to such an established senle were so, the necessity of Ainging away a the very grammatical terms of the very valuable part of his life, in ac Roman writers would fall under quiring seven or eight languages. that censure, as for instance (articu
“ But the latinity of the terms lus) an article, (verbum) a verb. in which natural history is written, When these terms were first used has been censured : upon this by grammarians, there was a great charge the following remarks may variation from their pre-establithe: be made.
sense, and their primary fignifica“ Such terms must be either pri- tions--a joint, a word. mitives or derivatives; now either “ It is likewise certain, that if of these may be barbarisms, when grammar had not been reduced innot found in any good Latin au- to an art among the Romans, these
terms would not have been now have long pursued these researches; found in their technical senses in that to unusual subjects I may apply their writings. And if a writer of terms wbicb never bave beez is this age, having reduced the art in use. to a fyftem, had presented the world " Atticus. . Certainly : but if our with 'the first Latin Grammar, and Latin language will not furnish had given the same names, verbum, them, you may bave recourse to ibe articulus, to the same things, his of. fence against pure latinity, or the “ Varro. 'I am obliged to you ; pre-established good use of those 'but I will endeavour to express words, would have been of the fame 'myself in Latin, confining myfelf magnitude as that of the original 'to such terms of Greek derivation Latin grammarians, and no more ; 'as are already naturalized among the same innovations in a language, us, as philosoply, rhetoric, phyfics, living or dead, being of equal qua • dialectics. I have therefore formlity : yet the charge against the pro- ed the new term Qualitas, to expriety of the terms uled by such a . press the sense of the Greek word writer, would be the same in kind Darbas; which even among them as that brought against the natural is not a word of common use, but historians; but it must have fallen 'confined to the philosophers. In like to the groundnor would it have manner, none of the terms of the been in degree less strong; for 'logicians are found in the popular bolder extensions in the sense of language; and the same is true of Latin terms, are not, that I recol • the terms of almost all the arts: ta lect, to be found in the Lexicon of 1.CX things new names muft be groet, our technical language. These far or those of abers transferred to them. tidious grammatical exceptions are, • If the Greeks take this liberty, in principle, exceptions both to the "who have cultivated the sciences art and the philotophy of grammar. • for ages, bow mucó firauzer is the If the naturalists err in this point, 'reafon it scoreld be granted to us, in they err with the grammatical fa our first attempt to iTeut upor: tben! thers (cum patribus).
« Cicero. It seems to me, that “ Secondly, What I have to say 'yonu do a cork of tatility to the about derivatives not used in Latin "public, if you nat only increase the writers, will be contained in a short fuck of orir ideas, ubicb pou bave comment on a pallage in the Acade already done, but clf tbat of our mic Questions of Cicero, where he words. aflerts the rights and privileges of Varro. " We shall therefore those who treat on philosophical • hazard the use of new words when subjects in a language not yet en necessary, and by your authority. ' riched with proper terms, and ex " And , here the farne neceility, emplifies his principles in the for- arising from the fame fource, exitis, mation of a new derivative, an au the fam: liherty is to be taken. thority from which I apprehend no And as Cicero, on this point, is an appeal will be made. The trantia- urexceptionable authority, let us tion of this pallage is as follows. examine his praction to see to what The original is placed at the end of degree it may be carried. The this article *.
Word Gut, derived from Quake, 6 Varro. “ You will allow me the is now iamiliarized to the ear. The • same liberty which has always fi;fi boldners of this derinaire is onbeen affumed by the Greeks, who ly perceived by reflection; but its
degree will strike us more immedi. science with a number of new dirately, if we take the Englith words coveries, confers a second general cubat, or fucb (as), which answer to benefit, by enriching the language the Latin pronominal adjective Quale, in which he treats of them, by all and add one of the substantiye ter- such terms as fhall be requisite to do minations (hood] or [ness) to either, it in the best manner. to make a philosophical term of it. “ Cicero, repeating his new term I aik the fevere grammarians, who quality, adds with great philofophiprotest against the class of new deri- cal pleasantry, · Faciamus tractando vatives in the philosophical language ustatius hoc verbum, et tritius. of Linnæus, to produce among them And it may be said of the terms of a bolder example of the creation of natural history, that our elegant claro a new term.
fical scholars will find their afperiAnd by the same authority, we ties wear off very soon, if, by adding may defend his imposing new ligni- to their former acquisitions a knowfications on old words; for in a few ledge of this new philosophy, they lines after the conclusion of the ex. make themselves practically versed tract, there occurs a liberty of this in the use of them. There may rekind, and as remarkable as the main some precisely descriptive, former; for Cicero there gives a which may'be yet added; some renew sense to the pronominal adjec- 'formation may be wanted in those tive Qilale, in correspondence to that which may have been haftily adoptof his new derivative Qualitas; using ed; and from them we may expect it substantively to fignify any being it. or thing, as compounded of sub " It is to be observed, that these ftance and accident, or matter and arguments defend the liberty, not qualities : ' Et ita effeci que appel- the licentiousness, of introducing • lant qualia ; e quibus in omni na new terms; and defend it upon the • tura cohærente, et continuata cum footing of neceility only; and there
omnibus fuis partibus, effectum fore extend that liberty no further effe mundum.'
than fuch neceflity actually ex. “ It deserves to be remarked re tends. specting these innovations, that this I had thought to have finished assertion of the legitimacy of the here; but having made so much use practice in all like cases is here put of the authority of the great ornaby Cicero into the mouth of Varro, ment of the Roman forum, the senthe greatest critic and grammarian timents of the elegant expositor of of the Augustan age; who wrote on our own laws on this subject are not the Latin language, and addressed to be passed by. These, with a mihis works to Cicero himself.
nute change to avoid the introduc“ Hence it appears, that philoso- tion of freth matter, are as follows: phy is not restrained to the use of “This is a technical language calcuthe common terms of any language; lated for eternal duration, and caly nor, for the same reason, to those of 'to be apprehended both in present. the historians,
orators, dramatic • and future times ; and on these acwriters, poets, &c. of that language, "counts best suited to preserve those either separately or conjointly: but, • memorials which are intended to as every art has terms of its own, so 'perpetuate [every discovery. in nahas every branch of science. • tural bistory]. It is true indeed
* That he who enriches any that many of the terms of art with 1797.
which it abounds, may, as Mr. cam, aut physicam, ant dialetticam • Selden observes, give offence to appellem, quibis, ut aliis multis, . fome grammatical and squeamish consuetudo jam utitur pro Latinis. • ftomachs, who would rather choose Qualitates igitur appellavi, quas • to live in ignorance of things moft T.01077,7as Græci vocant: quod ip• useful and important, than to have sum apud Græcos non eft vulgi • their delicate ears wounded by the verbum, fed philofophorum, atque • use of a word unknown to Cicero, id in multis. Dialecticorum vero ver• Sallust, or the other writers of the ba nulla funt publica ; fuis utuntur. • Augustan age.'
Et id quidem commune omnium
ferè est artium. Aut enim nova * * Cic? Op. omnia, Gronovii. funt rerum novarum facienda no. Acad. Queft. L. 1.
mina, aut ex aliis transferenda, quod " 2.4. *** Dabitis enim profectò, fi Græci faciunt, qui in iis rebus tot ut in rebus inuftatis, quod Græci jam fæcula verfantur, quanto id meipti faciunt, a quibus hæc jamdiu gis nobis concedendum eft, qui buc: tractantur, utamur verbis interdum nunc primum tractare conamur ? inauditis.
6 26. Tu verò, inquam, Varro, * 25. Nos verò, inquit Atticus. bene etiam meriturus mihi videris, Quin etiam Græcis licebit utare, cum de tuis civibus, fi eos non modo copis voles, fi te Latina forte deficient. rerum auxeris ut effecisli, sed etiam Bene fanè facis : fed enitar ut La. verborum. Audebimus ergo, inquit, tinè loquar, nifi in hujus modi ver. novis verbis uti, te auctore. **" bis, ut philosophiam, aut rhetori
OBSERVATIONS on the Nature of the Chinese LANGUAGE.
[From Sir George STAUNTON's Account of the Embassy to China.]
THE sounds of several letters « The nice distinctions between “T
in moft alphabets, such as the tones and accents of words pearB, D, R, and X, are utterly un- ly resembling each other in found, known in the Chinese tongue. The but varying much in sense, require, organs of speech in a native of Chi- no doubt, a nicety of ear to diftinna are not in the habit of pronounc: guith, and of vocal powers to render, ing them. In indeavouring to ut- them exactly. To succeed in makter one of these, another to which ing those diftin&tions perfectly, I the same organ has been habituated ftranger should begin to learn them is generally founded : instead of the at an early age, while his organs are letter R, the liquid L is usually pro- flexible and acute. A material nounced by a Chinese ; whó thus aid, however, towards taking each occasionally falls into ridiculous mit- word in its proper' sente is afforded takes. A Chinese dealer in rice, often by the general context of the for example, is fometimes heard to sentence in which they are used. offer for tale what few perfons An English reader, for example, would be difpoted to purchase. will scarcely recollect, whèa in con