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it tends to make it more surprising. but also hot air, and hot fteam, and It should seem that neither the mais hot mixtures of air and steam, are of steam, nor that of air, were at all non-conductors of heat; consequentcooled by the body of ice which ly that the hot vapour which rises they surrounded, for if the air had from burning fuel, and even the been cooled (in mass), it seems flame itself, is a non-conductor of highly probable that the clouds heat. would have returned.

“ This may be thought a bold • The results of these experi- affertion, but a little calm reflection, ments compared with those foriper and a careful examination of the ly alluded to, in which I had on- phenomena which attend the comdeavoured to ascertain the most ad- bustion of fuel, and the communivantageous forms for boilers, open cation of heat by flame, will fhow ed to me an entirely new field for it to be well founded; and the adfpeculation and for improvement in vantages which may be 'derived the management of fire. They from the knowledge of this fact are showed me that not only cold air, of very great importance indeed."

Account of a Method of making Soap of Wool, with OBSERVATIONS

respecting its Use in various ARTS. By M. CHAPTAL.

[From the ANNALES DE CHIMIE, and inserted in the Seventh Volume of

the RepuRTORY of Arts and MANUFACTURES.] Hare already sewn the man of soap, for domestic purposes. (See

ner of making, at all times, the. Report of _Meffrs. Pelletier, in every place, and at a small ex d'Arcet, and Le Lievre, on the art pence, a laponaceous liquor which of making soap*.) I shall now may be conveniently used, instead present to the public a supplement


* As that part of the report referred to by M. Chaptal appears to be of general utisty, we shall here give a translation of it.

“A very good way of using soap is, to employ it in a liquid fate; that is, difoired in water. In consequence of which, M. Chaptal proposes that faponaceous liquors fould be prepared, wlich may be used in fead of solutions of soap; and, in order to be able to pa. cure such liquors, at all times, in all places, and a linall expence, he adulte ode its other of the following methods to be praftifed. We fhall describe them esadiiy as N. Chaptal communicated them to us, with observations thereon, inade by binafelf.

Firf4 Method. « Take the anes produced from the combustion of wood rich has not been foated, and make a ley of them, according to the usual manner; with the atkes a handful or two of quick-lime, well pounded, or recently naked. Let the ley fand ull it is grown clear, by the settling or swimaning of the foreign subftanees contained therein :ihen pour it into another vesiel, and keep it for use. When it is proposed to make use of this ley, take any quantity of oil, and pour upon it thirty or forty times as inuch of the ley. Inmediateis a liquor as white as milk will be formed, which, by being well


to my former work, instructing tate for soft-foap, (which is at prethem how to prepare, as a substi- {ent made use of in fulling almost


Haken, or firred, lathers and froths like a good solution of foap. This liquor is to be a poured into a washing-tub, or other vefiel, and to be diluted with a greater or less quantity of water; after which, the linen, meant to be wathed, is to be steeped therein, to be rubbed, and wrung, in the usual way.

« Obfervariors. « 1. It is better that the ley should not be made until the time when it is to be used: if it is left to fiand in open vessels, its power is weakened, and its nature is changed.

“ 2. Fresh wood-athes are preferable to old ones, particularly if the latter have been exposed to the air; in that case, they have no longer their usual power, and we must, in order to make them serve our purpuse, mix with them a greater proportion of quicka lime.

“ 3. Those afnes also are preferablc which are produced from hard wood: thore which are left after the burning of floated wood cannot be made use of with equal suc. čers.

4. Fat oils, of a thick confinence, are most proper for the purpose here spoken of: fine thin oils are by no means fit for it.

“ $. If fiinking oil be made use of, it is apt to give a bad smell to the linen; this may be removed by passing the linen carefully through a frong pare ley; but, in genes ral, this smell goes off as the linen becomes dry.

« 6. When the mixture of oil with the ley is of a yellow colour, it must be diluted with water.

“ 7. When the oil rises in the ley, and swims upon the surface of it, in the form of small drops, it shews that the oil is not fit for the purpose, nu: being thick enough; of elie, that the ley is too strong, or not sufficiently caufiic.

“ 8. To prevent the quick-lime from lofing its power, and that we may always have some to use when we want it, it may be broken into finall pieces, and kept in bottles well dried, and well corked.

« Second Method.

“ Floated wood, which is made use of in many parts of France, produces ashes which contain very little alkaline falt, and which are consequently very improper for making loya; in that case, barilla, or potain, may be used in fiead of them.

* Take barilla, and break it into pieces about the hize of a walnut; put these into a vefsel of any kind, and pour upon them twenty times their weight of water : the water is to be left upon the barilla till it appears, by putting a little upon the tongue, to be Nightly falt.

“ Some oil is then to be put into an earthen vesel, and forty times as much of the barilla-ley is to be poured upon it: the mixture, which foon becomes milky, is to be well fhaken, or firred; and, after being diluted with more or less clean water, accords ing to its strength, and the purpose for which it is intended, is to be made ufc oi' like a solution of soap in water,

“ Instead of barilla, pot-afh may be employed, but it requires a small quantity of pounded quick-lime to be mixed with it.

« Obfervations: < 1. Alicant or Carthagena barilla may be used without any mixture of lime; but the bad barilla of our country requires to have mixed with it a greater or less proportion of lime, according to its degree of-itrength and purity.

6 2. When barilla, of whatever kind it inay be, is in a state of effiorescepce, it can pot be employed without a mixture of limo,

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* 3. If

every kind of woollen stuff,) a kind facturer and the government hatě of soap which costs little, and which fought how to get rid of the aboro may be easily made in every woollen mentioned inconveniences. Fullers manufactory.

earth, pure alkalies, and other “ In all manufactories of cloth, things, have by turns been made blankets, and other woollen goods, use of. The first performs the o it is the custom to full the stuff, as perations of bleaching and fullir g soon as it comes from the loom. very imperfectly: the second ditfolve The intention of this operation is, the cloth; and the manufacturers not only to scour the cloth, &c. but of Lodeve still recollect, with teralso to render it more compact ; ror, a quack fent there by the go. and, in performing it, about thirtyvernment, fome years ago, who pounds of loft-loap are used to proposed to make use of mineral eighty pounds of woollen stuff. In alkali or barilla, instead of foap. the south of France, before the re “ To the inconveniences already volution, soft-soap cost twenty livres mentioned we may add, that inftead the hundred weight. A great part of rendering the cloth sufficiently of our oil, and also of that of Italy, soft and pliable, the substitutes juit is consumed in making it; so also spoken of leave it in a degree of are the wood-ashes of the fires used harshness, which nothing but foap for domestic purposes, in those completely removes. It is neceilacountries where it is made.

ry, therefore, that any substance “ From what has been said, it is propoted to be used, instead of loftobvious how advantageous it would soap, thould poffefs the power of be to the manufacturer, and to scouring, of fulling, and of foftencommerce in general, to be able to ing, the cloth. The compofition ! supply conveniently the place of ani how about to describe unites all soft-soap, by an article, the prepa- these advantages: experiments have, ration of which is neither difficult by my defire, been made with it, at nor expensive. Befides the saving Lodeve, by M. Michel Fabriguette; which would take place in the a person as well versed in philosomanufacturing of woollen goods, phical pursuits as in manufacturing great advantage would arise from of cloth. the ashes of our wood-fires being “ The whole process confists in left, either for domestic uses, or for making a caustic alkaline ley or salt-works, or for manufactories of lixivium, with wood-athes or potgreen glass; and, at the fame time, afh; in causing the ley to boil; and the oil now used in making soap then ditlolving therein as great a would remain, to be wholly en quantity of old woollen rags; or ployed for purposes wherein it is ihreds of cloth, as the ley wiil difimpoffible to find a substitute for it. folve. By this means a kind of folie

* In all times, both the manu. fuap is produced, of a greyith-green

“ 3. If the barilla-lcy is wo strong, th a oil is apt to swim on its furface"; it mul then be diluted with a proper quantity of water.

« 4. Fat oil is moii fit for chis purpose : fine light oils should not be used.

“ 5. When the saponaceous liquor is yres, and the linens washed in it are fo likerite, They mur be passed through a pure barilla-sey, to have their greafiness removed; with ley thould first be warned a little, to encrease its effect.

« ô. When the water which was poured upon the barilla is all ufed, frefa water my be poured upon the remaining barilla. This water will acquire a salinc laite, like the *:*: tinus, the lame barilla way serve for several fuccetlive operaticus,


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malour, the ingredients of which are two ounces and seven drams of well combined with each other, wool. The soap was of a good conand which is very soluble in water. fiftence, and, when cold, weighed It has, an animal smell, which, fourteen ounces.

it however, the cloths get rid of, by 6. In proportion as the wool is being washed, and exposed to the diffolved in the ley, the solvent air.

power of the alkali grows weak, “ The various experiments I and at last it will dislove no more. have made on this subject have When we observe that the wool, been attended with the following upon being stirred in the liquor, is results:

po longer dissolved, it is then time " 1. As soon as the wool is to stop the process. thrown into the boiling ley, its “I shall now point out what fibres adhere to each other, and a means are to be employed, in every very flight degree of agitation is woollen manufactory, to prepare the sufficient to render its solution com- foap which will be wanted in it. pleie. “ 2. In proportion as fresh wool

« On tbe Cboice and Preparation of is added, the ley gradually acquires

the Materials. colour and consistence. “ 3. The soap has more or less

" The materials requiste to form colour in proportion to the clean- this soap are only two; alkaline subners and whiteness of the wool made stances, and wool. use of.

66 The alkaline substances may “ 4. Hair of a coarser kind, be procured from the ashes of any which happens to be mixed with fires where wood is burnt; and the the old wool, is ditlolved with more ley is to be made according to the difficulty

common well-known process. “ 5. The quantity of wool which Quick-lime is to be flaked with a ley is capable of diffolving depends small quantity of water, and the upon its strength, its caufticity, and paste formed thereby is to be mixed its degree of heat. Two pounds, with the ashes, (they being first three ounces, and three quarters, of passed through a sieve,) in the procaustic alkaline ley, at twelve de- portion of one-tenth part of quickgrees of concentration, and at the lime, by weight, to the quantity of boiling-heat, diffolved ten ounces alhes made use of. The mixture and a half of wool. The soap, thould be put into a stone vefsel; when cold, weighed one pound and (as wooden vessels not only colour four ounces.

the ley, but are themselves much “ A similar quantity, of alkaline injured by it;) and water is then to ley, of the same degree of causticity be poured upon it, in such quantity and heat, in wbich I diffolved four as to cover it, and rise some inches ounces of wco', did

not thereby ac above it. These are to be left toquire fufficient confiftence to be ca- gether for a certain time, and then pable of being used for the various the ley is to be drawn off, by an apurposes for which this foap is in- perture, made for that purpose, at tended,

the bottom of the vellel. It is best. “ Another similar quantity of not to draw off the ley, till the moley, of four degrees of concentra- mert when it is to be used : its tion, could not diffolve more than strength thould be from four to fif

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teen degrees; but the degree of frances. When washed, they may concentration is a matter of very lit- be laid by till wanted. tle consequence, fince all the dif “ We may also, with equal adference that results from making vantage, make use of the cuttings use of a weak ley or strong one, is; and shreds of woollen cloth, which that a greater or a less quantity of are found in the shops of woollenwool will be dissolved.

drapers, tailors, &c. and likewise of “ The pot-ath of commerce may all sorts of garments, or other woolalso be made use of; it is to be em- len articles, after they have been p!oyed in the same manner as the worn till they will serve no longer. wood-afhes, but with one third of its weight of quick-lime.

On the Preparation of the Soap. “ With respect to the choice of the wool, every one knows, that in 4 When the ley is made, and the the making of woollen cloths, blan- wool procured, nothing remains to kets, and all other kinds of woollen be done, but to bring the ley to a goods, a series of operations are per- boiling-heat in a common caldron. formed, from the first waihing of When it is brought to that degree the wool to the finishing of the of heat, the wool is to be thrown cloth, &c. in each of which there in, a little at a time, and the mixoccurs a loss, more or less considera- ture is to be stirred, that the solible, of a portion of the original ma- tion may go on the faster. A fretly terial. The water in which the quantity of wool should not be arii wool is washed, the floor on which ed, until the preceding quantity is it is spread, and thy warehouse in dissolved; and the process thould which it is depofiter exhibit fuffi- be stopped, as soon as we find that cient proofs of this; íalso do the the liquor wil not diffolve any more operations of beating, carding, spin- wool. ning, and weaving the wool, and " It has been ascertained, by those of fhearing combing, and trials in the large way, made by fulling the cloth. It is indeed true Michel Fabriguette, with foap of that the scattered wool, produced this kind, which he prepared acfrom these various procefies, is col. cording to my instructions, that lected with son:e care; but many of such soap seours the cloths, felts them are of such a nature, that the them, and softens them, perfectly waste wool resulting from them, ei- well; but there are some obferrather is dirty, and mixed with other tions to be made, respecting its use, fubstances, or it is cut so fhort, that which are too important to be omitit is rendered incapable of being a- tpd. gain nsed: in either case, the manu First, when this soap is not facturer throws it on the dunghill. prepared with sufficient care, or The making of the foap here de when it is made with dirty or CCscribed furnithes him with the loured wool, it is apt to give the means of bringing all these into use; cloths, &c. a greyiih tinge, which it nothing more being requisite than is very difficule to remove. If the to collect them in the bakets in cloth' is intended to be dyed, this which the wool is wased, and to tinge is of no consequence; bot it wath them carefully; as well for would injure that fine white colour, the sake of cleaning them, as to se- which, in certain cafes, is intended parate from them all foreign sub- to be given, a to be preserved.

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