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This tinge, however, may be pre. therein, in the usual well-known vented, by a very careful selection manner, it will, by being passed of the materials for making the three times through the liquor, and soap which is meant to be employ- dried each time, be as strongly diled for such delicate purposes. posed to receive the dye, as cotton
“Cloths, &c. fulled with this soap, which has been seven times passed acquire, as was said before, an ani- through the saponaceous liquors mal fmell, which, without being very commonly used. This will not be strong, is nevertheless unplealant; thonght very astonishing, when it is but, water and air never fail to re- considered that animal substances move it.
are very fit for disposing thread and “ Having succeeded in fulling cotton to receive the colours with woollen cloths by the use of this which they are to be dyed ; and soap, I attempted to use soda, in the that the intention of several of the place of pot-afh, and thus to form operations performed upon them, (according to the process above de- previous to their being dyed, is scribed) a hard soap, fit for the ope- merely to impregnate them with rations of dying cottons; and my such substances. experiments succeeded beyond my " It is necessary to remark, that expectations.
cotton, by being paired through a ** Forty-six pounds of foda-ley (of solution of this loap, acquires a grey eight degrees) diffolved, in a boil- tinge, very much like that which is ing-heat, five pounds of wool; and given to it by aluming; although afforded, when cold, fixteen pounds the common laponaceous liquors fourteen ounces of soap, sufficiently give it a beautiful white colour. hard to keep its form.
This grey colour, however, is no “ The first quantities of wool disadvantage to cotton which is inthrown into the foda-ley are easily tended to be dyed, as we have al. diffolved; but it may be observed, ready remarked with respect to that the liquor gradually grows woollen cloths. thicker, and that the diffolution be • In confirmation of what I have comes more ditñcult and lower. said above, respecting the advantage
“ The ley, by the wool first dif- to be derived from inaking use of folved in it, acquires a green co this soap, I may add, that after have lour; it afterwards grows black; ir:g impregnated fome cotton with and the foup, when cold, still re- it, according to the usual method, I tains a blackish green colour. made it pass through all the pro
“ This soap has been made use celies which wool undergoes, in of, in every different manner, and order to be dyed of a scarlet colour. under every form, in my manufacto- The consequence was, that the cote ry for dying cottons; and I 3m now ton was thereby dyed of a deep and satisfied that it may be employed, very agreeable flesh-colour; whereinttead of the faponaceous liquor as, cotton which had 1100 been prewe are accustomed to make from pared in that manner, came out of ley of soda and oil, for the purpose the bath almost of its natural colour. of preparing the cottons. I have This first trial promifes advantages constantly observed, that if such a which I mean to pursue. quantity of this foap be diffolved in
" It may be right to observe, that cold water as will sender the water this soap of wool inay advantagemilky, and the cotton be worked oully be made ute of, inficad of
common soap, for domestic pur- of the various ways in which I haro poses. I have employed it, with applied it. the greatest fuccefs, in washing lin “ I thall only add, that as the en; and it is particularly efficaci- soap here described gives to woollens ous in scouring woollen garments, and cottons a grey tinge, which is &c. I have no doubt that the fa- very difficult to remove, it follows cility and economy with which its that it cannot be used for washing preparation is attended, will cause linen, unless it be made of white its use to be extended to many o- wool, carefully seleđed, and well ther purposes; in the mean time, I washed." thought it right to give an account
INTERESTING Account of the EFFECTS produced on the HUMAN
Body, by the INTERNAL Use of Nitrous Acid, and of the BeneFit derived from it in the Cure of Diseases, by Mr. Scott, of BOMBAY .
[From Drs. DUNCANS ANNALS of Medicine for the Year 1796.)
" « THE following interesting ar- The acid that I now employ for in
ticle of medical news has ternal use, is procured from a mixnot probably fallen into the hands ture, of three parts of alum, and one of many of our readers; and to all of nitre. I have no objection to of them it will, we doubt not, ap- my name being used on this fubpear fo fingular as to deserve parti- ject; for I really believe, that such cular attention. If the observations a remedy would be highly useful made by Mr. Scott shall be confirm- to mankind, if judiciouily employed by the experience of others, the ed, especially in warm climates, nitric acid will afford a most valua- where a tendency to animalization ble remedy for combating diseases, gives a particular character to all against which, the remedies com- our diseales. monly employed are often attended
I am, &c. with so much inconvenience.
LETTER TO Sir Joseph Banks. Account of the Efcets of the Nitrous
Acid on the Human Body, extra Bombay, 6tb May, 1796. ed from the Bombay Courier, April « 1 cmbrace an opportunity of 30, 1796. sending you a short account, that I have just published, of the effects The following attempt to extend of the nitrous acid on the human a little the limits of the healing art, body. As I have long made use of is infcribed as a tribute of respect to this active agent, and in a great va- the character of Dr. James Anderriety of cases, I am persuaded that I son, physician-general at Madras. have not been deceiving myself. " In August 1793, I emploved Another paper will shortly be pub- myself for fome time in making exlished on this subject, whica I Thall periments on the bile, a secretion ailo take the lipeity of sending you. that is connected in a great degree
with many of the diseases of this livers, on the dissection of the dead, country. I wished to unite some of of a pearl colour, and much enlargthe calces of mercury with the refi- ed, which, I suspect, were compared nous matter of that fluid; for I in a good measure of this refinous imagined that I might discover matter. I have even found it, from fome chemical affinity between thore accurate trials, in a considerable fubstances, and be able to see by quantity, in the substance of a liver what means this metal is so singu- that was apparently without disease. larly qualified for removing obstruc- Is the well-known effect of new tions of the liver.
grafs, in diffolving the biliary calcu« I had collected, for experiment, li of the gall-bladder, that cattle get a quantity of the resinous base of the in the winter-time, to be accounted bile of a buffalo, which I had sepax for from the pure air of green and rated very carefully from its foda. aseescent vegetables ? and from the lymphatic matter with “ It is acknowledged, that all the which it is united. I had put a calces of mercury which are used in dram or more of this substance into medicine, contain a quantity of pure a vessel, to which I added about air; but I know of no direct expehalf of the same weight of the red riment having been hitherto made, calx of mercury, with ten or twelve to prove that the effect of mercury ounces of water. On heating the in dif ates of the liver, or in other whole together, I was surprised to maladies, depends on this principle, observe, that the base of the bile be- and not on the metal itself. The came remarkably more soluble in experiinents, that I had made on the water. I cannot say that I ob- the bale of the bile, inclined me to served the red colour of the calx in with to take myself a quantity of any great degree altered; but it is pure air, united to fome fubstance known to retain its brilliancy with for which it has no great attraction. different quantities of oxygene. Il reflected on the different ways filtrated this bitter folution, which that are employed by chemists to deposited the base of the bile, as oxygenate inanimate matter ; for the water, evaporated in the ordi- believed, that the same chemical atnary heat of the atmosphere. I thall tractions would produce a fimilar at another time consider this subject effect in the living body, although with a little more attention.
they might be disturbed in their a “ M. Fourcroy has observed, peration by the vital ty of the mathat water disolves a small portion of chine, and the variety of the printhe base of the bile. In this expe- ciples of which it is composed. riment, a confiderably larger quan
- The nitric acid, as may be suptity was taken up than water could poted, was one of the first substances have diffolved, which I attribute to that occurred to me as fit for my the oxygenation of the refin by the purpole ; for it is known to containa pure air of the calx. I had fome about four parts of vital air, united reason to think, that obstructions to one of azote, with a certain proof the liver do often contiit of a de- portion of water. These principles pofition of the resin of the bile, can be separated from each other which, I now began to suppose, by the intervention of many other might be rendered soluble in the a- bodies, as chemists find every day in nimal fiuids, by the pare air of the their operations. I was led, befides, mercurial preparations that are gir- to give a preference to the nitric en for the disease. I have seen acid, from observing, that it if
folves very completely the resinous but could lie for a length of time on base of the bile. I have fince found, my left fide, which, from some disthat the celebrated M. Fourcroy ease in my liver, had not been the had made the same observation be. case for many months before. I fore me.
perceive a pain in the back of my “ Before I began to take the ni- head, resembling what I have comtric acid, I consulted all the ac- monly felt when taking mercury. counts of it, that I could procure, " 4th. My gums are a little with a view of learning something tender. I continue the acid as beof its effects on the human body. fore. I still find a pain in my head, The result of this inquiry was but and about my jaws, like what ariles little satisfactory; for Í only found from mercury. I perceive no sympthat it had been given as a diuretic, toms of my liver-complaint. in very infignificant quantities, or “ 5th. I have taken the acid; recommended in general terms, and always feel an agreeable fenfe where the mineral acids are fuppof- of heat after drinking it. I pit ed to be useful. I did not think more than usual. myself warranted to administer it to “ 6th. I continue the acid. I others from such imperfect infor- observe my mouth forer to-day, and mation; but I resolved to take it spit more. myself; and I thought I was parti “ 7th. I think I am now fufficularly qualified to determine its ciently oxygenated. I feel my mouth effects, as I had reason, for a long so troublesome, that I thall take no time before, to complain of my more acid. liver.
“ From this time my mouth got “ In September 1793, I began to gradually well, and I found my take the nåric acid. I mixed about health confiderably improved. a dram of the strongest that I could 6 I now began to suppose, that I procure, with a sufficient quantity had discovered a remedy for that of water; and I was happy to find, chronic disease of the liver, which that I could finish that quantity in is so much more common here than the course of a few hours, without the accute hepatitis. I thought that any disagreeable effects from it. The it inight in some respect be preferafollowing is the journal that I kept ble to mercury, as it did not appear of myself at the time.
to produce the inconveniences that “ 11th September, 1st day. Took arise from the use of that metal. I at different times about a dram of have given it since to a number of ftrong nitric acid, diluted with wa- people, who had taken mercury for
oon after drinking it, I feel hepatic obstructions, without being a sense of warmth in my stomach effectually cured ; and I have found and chest; but I find no disagree it in many cases produce the most able sensation from it, nor any other agreeable consequences. If it were material effect.
proper on this occafion to be more “ 2d. I have taken to-day a cor- particular in detailing the cases in fiderable quantity of acid, diluted which I have administered this rewith water, as much as I could casi, medy, I believe I could make it ly drink during the forenoon. very probable that I bave not been
“ 3d. I have continued the acid. deceiving myself. In the acute heI feel my gums affected from it, and patitis, I have hardly employed it; they are somewhat red, and enlarg. for where the life of a person is in ed between the tecth. I fept ill; immediate danger, I have thought
it my duty to make use of remedies from his head-ach, and he remained that are established.
very well for a few months, as was “ I have, with the best effect oxy- usual to him after mercury. genated several people with the ni 5 I have now had a pretty exo tric acid, who were much reduced tensive experience of the good efby tedious intermittents. That feets of the nitric acid in Typhilis ; kind of fever is often connected and I have reason to believe, that it with diseased liver or spleen. In is not in general less effectual than consequence, I think, of this reme. mercury in removing that disease in dy, I have seen them recover their all its forms, and in every stage of natural colour froin a leaden or bi- its continuance. I think that in lious hue, and regain their strength some cases it has even fuperior powfrom a long continued weakness. ers; for I have succeeded coinI believe, if given in a sufficient pletely with the acid, when mercuquantity, it would be very useful in ry, administered both in this conthe fever of this country, which has try and in Europe for years toge-, been called bilious, or nervous, or ther, had failed of succets. We putrid, and for which mercury ap- appear to be able to carry the depears to be a specific.
gree of oxygenation of the body to a “ I have met with two instances greater length by means of the nie only in this country of diabetes. tric acid, and to continue it longer They were both natives, and in the than we can do by mercury. decline of life. I cured them both " A mass of mercury, in the dirby mercury, after many other reme- culation, produces many disagreeadies had been tried. One of these ble effects, that make it otten necelmen had a relapse of his disease, fary, to give over its use before it has which I removed a second time antwered its intention : but the ni, with the nitric acid. I thought this tric acid may be taken a long time a satisfactory correspondence in the without any material injury to the effects of the two remedies. May health ; nor are its effects on the they not both be useful in that dit month, in producing inflammation, ease?
and a fow of saliva, fo disagreeable “ The great resemblance that I as from mercury. perceived in myself, betweeen the “ A man could hardly offer to effects of mercury and of the nitric his species a greater bletling than a acid, niade me anxious to know if new remedy against any of the host the acid would remove the various of diseases that affail us ; but the fymptoms of fyphilis. In Septem- reputation of fpecitics, with the exber 1703, it was administered, at ception of a few instances, has arisen my defire, by my friend Mr. An- only from the weakness of the huderfon, surgeon of the 77th regi- 'man mind. Am I too deceiving ment, to a person who had a head- myself and attempting to lead others ach that came on every night, and into error ? which had long been inspected to " As the acid that I distil is not arise from lues. He had taken se- ftrong, and is of unequal strength at veral courses of mercury on this ac- different times, I am regulated chiefcount, which carried away all the ly by the taste in giving it. I put uneafy fymptoms ; but they as con- half or three fourths of a Madeira ftantly returned after a certain pe- glassful of it in two pints of water, riod. On using the acid for about or I make two pints of water as acid a fortnight, he got perfectly free as it can well be drunk, This quan