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navigated, was equally terrible to in imagination, he might welcome them all.

this holy horror as the proper ele“ Neither did these camours in ment for the creation of his boldest the least agree with a voyage to the imagery. The characteristic marks thores of Avernus, which lay in of melancholy and gloom predomitheir way: and the second visit to nate through the whole of the eleCirce was still more absurd. Should venth book of the Odyssey. it be answered that Ulysses returned “ Whether the people of Cimto inter Elpenor, who had broken merium and their city, as described his neck in the palace of the god- by the poet – dess, and whom, oppreffed by other cares, he had left unburied, his « There in a lonely land and gloomy cells meeting with the foul of Elpenor in The dulky nation or Cimmeria dwells. the lower regions will thew the er

The fun ne'er views th' uncomfortable seats, ror of this opinion. He entreated when radiant he ad sances, or retreats. Ulyffes to remember him, and to fee Unhappy race! whom endless night in

vades, him buried : ' for I know,' said he, Clouds the dui air, and wraps them round • that thou wilt land on the Ææan in ihades. *jfland.'

Pope, Od. b. xi. 15. “ Ulyffes promises a ready compliance, as a thing easily to be per- whether the dark kingdom of this formed. Had he been excited by benighted people was the creation other cares, which had induced him of Homer, or, which to me is much to leave him unburied the first time, more probable, the picture of more a ceremony that at the utmoft early fable, I cannot determine : but would have required only the delay it does not appear to me that this of a few days in order to afford him passage is applicable to the Cimmethis token of his affection, what rii of Italy; who lived under ground. could now induce him to perform The latter, whether they actually such a voyage for his sake? Elpenor buried themselves in fubterranean well knew that Ulysses would not caverns or not, were probably fo unnecessarily wander over an un called from the Ciminerii described known sea : but would more will. by Homer. ingly return by a route that he had “ I shall again have occasion to already navigated, and afterward speak of the Cimmerii of Italy; and continue a coafting voyage.

of the light under which they have “ Where then was the hell of been considered by the last comHomer situated ? In answer to this mentators on the ancients ; particnI must refer you to the map of Voss, larly the Italians. which contains the countries de • Whoever has a just notion of scribed by Homer; and to his own the state of geography among the inquiries concerning ancient geogra- Greeks in much later times than phy. The empire of death may be those of Homer, whoever is famiconcealed in that terrific and dismal liarized with oceanus, in the Promegloom in which the poet found it, theus of Æschylus, with the Ariamong the records of tradition : or malpi, and with the daughter of he might have purposely enveloped Phorcus -- he, I say, who is but it in the darkness of amazement, Nightly acquainted with the ancient and of horror. As tagacious in the Jonic bards, the contemporaries of conduct of bis poem as he was rich · Homer, will know that they rnight 1797

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imagine

imagine those places, the gh they be giants: and was it a poet's busiwere but a day's fail beyond the nels to represent them as common promontory of Circe, that is, a day's men? fail to which the goddess lent fa " How sublime was the, shall I vourable winds, to be the limits of call it poetical fiction, or, tradition of the earth. Later times have thrown the island, which was governed by back Cimmerian darkness farther to the prince and lord of the winds, the north. Hence the inhabitants of Æolus! Homer took good care, Jutland, and the Danish islands, that we might have no trace of any have at length been called the Cim- such itland, to leave it foating in bri.

the sea. Both modern and ancient “ The fables of the ancients have commentators suppose the largeft of frequently wandered from place to the Lipari islands, near Sicily, to be place; and the motley multitudes of the place. What I have faid of the system-makers have been eager to Læftrygons is equally applicable to wander in their company.

the Cyclops. Homer might well, “ Great shade of the greatest of three thousand years ago, with appoets, out of whose ever youthful parent probability people an island imagination the Iliad and Odyfley with giants in which only two bunsprang, blooming, wouldft thou not, dred years ago Fazello, a valuable from thy real not fabulous Elytium, Sicilian author, was persuaded of look down, and laugh, didst thou the truth of the tkeletons of giants three thousand years after the exist having been found near Trapani, in ence of thy Cimmerii, who were the year 1342; and that one of thy own offspring, behold a tribe of them was the giant Eryx, flaid by learned infects, industrious book Hercules. worms, point out out thy enpire of “ The cautious poet likewise left hell on the map of Homan? An the situation of the illand of Ogygia, empire which thou, with all the cau the residence of the goddess Calyption of wisdom, haft placed beyond fo, so undetermined that some have the ken of cold curiofity, in the fupposed it to be Malta, others Gozo necromantic darkneis of legend ; near Malta, others again a little whose non-existing phantons, em island below the bay of Taranto, bodied by thee, are pointed to as rea and others an island near Albania, lities, and as the traces of geographi- the ancient Epirus. cal truth !

“ Yet who fo determinate and During the whole peregrinations circumstantial as Homer, when he of Ulysses from people to people, we can by that means promote poetical can follow him without difficulty. effect? Who fo lively, in defcribHow greatly is the poetical truth of ing and producing the feenery, the Od;iley realized by this circum- when he can thus give greater ani. stance! The wonderful phenome- mation and reality to his characters? na of Scylla and Charybdis, which Who knows like him to favour poedetérred the companions of the hero tical illufion by light clouds, or by from near enquiry. contribute to the dark, that now conceal, now magnis poetical fiction of their being living fy and render objects dreadful, and montters The Lastrygons, a wild now glimmer round them; while people inhabiting the northern thores they communicate thote tender of Sicily, were probably by the con- trembling lights, which enchant the temporaries of the poet supposed to curiosity that they excite !

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« Children cry for the rainbow; narrative is not as circumstantially and the childish in understanding barren as a gazette, or as talkative are ditlatisfied with the poet, whose as the tales of old women.".

INVESTIGATION of the Site of TROY.

“TH

[From DALLAWAY'S CONSTANTINOPLE, Ancient and Modern.) CHE distance from the Greci- Marc Antony removed his urn and

an camp to the site of Troy, ashes into Agypt, which were afterhas supplied those who contend a ward restored with funeral honours gainst its existence with many plau- by Augustus, when it is probable lible objections. It is, however, that the present vault was made, certain that the present village of and the superstructure erected. This Koum-kaleh is situate on a fand compliment was paid to his manes bank of more than a mile in extent, to gratify the lian citizens, who which will reduce the distance, fup- considered him as their tutelar, posing it to be an accretion from the The city of Ilium was about two Hellefpont, to lets than eight Eng- miles distant, near the junction of lith miles from Bounår bathi, where the Scamander and Simoeis, and the Scæan gate once stood. The ad- owed its origin to 'Alexander and vanced works both of Greeks and Lysimachus, who repaired the temTrojans lefsened the intermediate ple of Minerva, and surrounded it space. If the Grecian camp was with a wall. It is not improbable between the ihore and the junction that when Alexander was enthusiof the Simoeis and Scamander, then astically investigating the site of anknown only by the latter name, the cient Troy, that the priests of Miunited river will answer to all the e nerva fhould attach him, from polipithets given to it by Homer. cy, to this spot for the foundation of

“ We began our survey of the a city which had likewise superior plain of Troy. Crossing the Simo- maritime advantages. Mænætus, eis over a long wooden bridge near governor of lium, went out to its embouchure, we passed over an meet Alexander in his Persic expeextensive level of ploughed fields, dition, and prefented him with a and Goulùlui, a brook which emp golden crown. It was first taken ties itself into the fea near In-tepè, by Charidemus Orites; and fubleor the tomb of Ajax Telamonius. quently belieged by l'imbrii, the This tumulus is now irregularly general engaged in the cause of Mafhaped. Near the top is a finall rius, and levelled with the ground ; arched way almost choaked up with this injury was afterward severely earth, which was the entrance into revenged by Sylla. They enjoyed the vault, and over it a broken wall, the patronage of Julius Cietar. It where was once a small sepulchral excites no wonder, that after so fane, called the Aiantèum. The

The long poffeffion of it by the Turhs, whole seems to be of a much more not a tone thould remain, yet fome modern date than the death of Ajax. contend against the existence of

K 2 Troy,

Troy, because no vestiges were dif- fic. They feast separately on pilav, coverable when Alexander founded and retire at an early hour, when the second city, whilft they admit the the ceremony is concluded. latter fa& equally unauthorised by “ The succession of five tumuli, present appearances.

under the distant horizon, tends “ From this fpot we had a most more than any other proof to ascer. interesting prospect independent of tain the Trojan war. About an its local history; the magic of hour and a half from Bournabathi, which, and its effects on the mind, on an easy eminence facing the west, are beautifully described by Lucan. we discovered vestiges of an ancient The left skreen is a low ridge of city. On the right are standing fehills; the middle distance is the ven granite pillars several feet high, great area, upon which the Greeks but it rather appears that they are were encamped; beyond was the not placed in their original order. scene of many of the great events of On the other fide, we saw a small the war; and the offikip and skirt- block of marble with an inscription, ing line were composed of the pro- a few inches above the ground, montory of Tenedos, Beihiktepè, which being dug up, we found to Sigeum, the village of Koum-kaleh, be of the date of the Roman empedown to the water edge, and a broad rors,'and too much mutilated to be winding reach of the Hellefpont, decyphered satisfactorily. into which the opposite headland « From the detail of topographiand castle were brought forward cal notices given by Homes, and with confiderable effeět. The sea from a comparison of the circumthen spreads very widely, and the stances he mentions, the ftrongeft view is closed by the blue moun- assurances will follow not only of tains of Imbros. The length and the existence, but the locality of extent of this isand have been ex: Troy. To infift that the poem tremely mistaken, as scarcely a map Towd te historically exađ, would is extant which describes it above be to make no allowance for the Hhalf its real fize.' We rode about berty of a ppet. That it is topograhalf an hour over heathy ground, phically so, an examination of the much elevated, to Halyleli, near present face of the country will amthe village of Thimbrìk-keny, and ply prove, and it is equally an obat the infiant of our pafling, a ject of classical curiosity, whether Turkish wedding was celebrating Troy existed or not, fince the fable, among the villagers ; the business if fuch it must be, is invariably acis summary. The parents of both commodated to the scene of action. parties, or the bridegroom for him- .“ With respectful defererne to a felf, fettle the contract, which im- name so long efteemed in the repubplies what dower he shall give the ļic of letters as that of Mr. Bryant, bride. This arrangement made, the i humbly but totally diffent from bridegroom afsembles his friends; his scepticifm on this fubje&t. For they mount horses, and are accom- it is not to the taltelefs fyftem of panied by music, such as a very re Bossu in his Essay on the Epic, rude hautboy, or pipe, and a drum, who has preceded Mr. Bryant in a can make. The bride is demanded, fimilar hypothesis, that the opinion and has likewise a cavalcade of her of many ages, and the fatisfaction of female relatives, when they return ocular inspection, can be seadily home animated with the same mu- conceded. To establish a conviction

on

Horace,

on the mind, that the tale of Troy space of a mile, the first object on the divine is a mere invention, may re- brow is a stony hillock, which Chequire yet more than the moft labo- valier, with no apparent reason, calls rious learning can lend to conjec- the tomb of Hector. It has been ture, and could it avail, we might opened and examined, but we could lose in the pleasures of the imagina- not learn the result. tion, as much as we thould gain by

• There are others covered with truth, could his arguments establish grass, appropriated likewise to Troit, and lament with the enthusiast in jan heroes. Upon this area and the

intermediate ground from the vil

lage, there is undoubtedly space e- demptus per viin mentis gratissimus nough for such a city as Troy is deerror."

scribed to have been. The level

falls abruptly on the south, with a “ As the setting fun was inore precipitate cliff, into a very deep rabrilliant than for many days past, vine, forming a mural rock as comthe village of Bounàr-balhi opened pact and regular as the remaining upon us very pleasantly from the walls of Conítantinople, now almost ford of the Simoeis, which we pafl- covered at its base by the stream and ed within a furlong of the chiftlik sands of the Simoeis, for the length of Hadji Mehmet Agha, the pre- of forty or fifty yards, and completTent proprietor of a domain producing a fortification, rendered impreging near £.5000 sterling per annum, nable by nature, which will account and including little less 1pace, and for a ten years' fiege, and the superthe identical ground of the king- lative epithet of walls constructed dom of old Priam. His house is by the gods themselves. Mr. Wood mean, but many columns were di discovered no place, amongst Ida, spersed about it, which had been col- correspondent to that description ; lected from the sites of adjacent ci- and Mr. Bryant would seek for it ties.

(did he purpose an actual inspection) From the village the hill rises only in his favourite Egypt. This rapidly, and soon becomes an insu- division of rifted rock from the lated mountain. In the front of the groupe of forest mountains, of which house, at a small distance, is the first Ida is composed on the east and fource of the Scamander, which is north sides, does not exceed a hunsaid, by M. Chevalier, to be the lot dred and fifty yards, and is scarcely spring, upon which he grounds the farther afunder at the top, finking strongest proof of his hypothesis re- as perpendicularly as an artificial specting the locality of the city of channel. The face of the ground Troy. It is at least tepid ; and the exhibits nothing worthy remark ; agha told us that in the winter bushes and huge unhewn stones onmonths, especially during frost, it ly are to be seen. The whole view was hot, and smoked. Homer muit of the plain of Troy, from the height be allowed the privilege of a hot said to have been the citadel, is of Spring, and a river full to the brink, uninterrupted extent, with the windif they hoppen once within the year. ing Simoeis, and the grand horizonThe lofty wall of Troy and the tal line marked by Uejek Tepee and Scæan gate interfected the modern the Sigean promontory, and turning yillage of Burna-bathi.

to the left, by the two in the island “ Aseending the «iil, thickly of Tenedos.' We then returned to fuewn with loose ftones for the the chiftlik, and bade-adieu to the

K 3 hofpi.

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