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hospitable aghà, who possessed, in a Miletus, upon which Mr. Wood has great degree, that trait of a true rested his opinion that Troy was fimusulman, urbanity to strangers. tuated so much higher amongst the

~ For several hours we traced with hills of Ida, seems to be ill founded; the utmost attention the course of for the Simoeis has, at no season, the Scamander from the cold or fe- either the size or declenfion from its cond fource, which is a collection of fource that the Cäytter and Meander small springs, through the morats, ate known to have. The soil exhiwhere for fome miles it is positively bits no marks of volcanic fire, nor hid, till we reached the new canal, can it be reasonably presumed, from and faw plainly the ancient bed. any present appearance, that the face The banks of this river, where expof- of the country. could have been ed, are verdant and beautiful, and changed by an earthquake, upon watered to the brink. M. Cheva- which circumstance as presupposed lier's topography and general idea, another hypothesis is built. Of all after a fuir investigation, we ac the proofs adduced by M. Chevalier, knowledged to be ingenious and the tumuli, fo connected with the plaufile.

Rhætean and Sigean promontories, “ We then fixed ourselves at and the outposts of the Grecian Giawr-keuy, or cape Janiflary, a camp, are the moft satisfactory. poor village confifting entirely of The fite is likewise confirmed by Greeks, the site of the far-famed Si- four others, which, to whatever begæum, which has likewise the name roes they may be conjecturally attriof Yeni-cheyr. It is fingular that buted, with no additional weight to Greeks should still occupy that an the argument, give a certain degree cient station.

of internal evidence, and ascertain “ From this eminence we locked the scene of great military transacover the plain, the whole scope of tions, or vicinity to a large city. In which we commanded; its broadest those rude and primæval ages, hediameter may be five or fix, and its roes had no other monuments, nor longest twelve miles, to Atchè-keuy. could any more lasting have been It is naturally verdant and fertile, devised. and now very generally cultivated,

" In cas excepting near the marsh, which

* Aggeritur tumulo tellus.' occupies a fifth part. Homer gives

VIRG. Ex. I. ii. v. 62, -3. frequent evidence of his having perfonally visited and examined this 6 We found the bas relief, and celebrated ipot, of which he fome. the celebrated Sigean inscription, times enters into minute defcrip- written with the letters invented by tions. The rivers are particularly Cadmus, and the lines written alcharacterited. Simoeis has broad ternately backward and forward, a fands, with a sudden and rapid cur mode of the highest antiquity, and rent ; Scamander is transparent, and used likewise for the laws of Solon, regularly full, within a narrow chan- according to Suidas. M. Choiseul's el, and to they continue to be till attempt to remove it, lanctioned by their junction, before they reach the firhmans, and the interest of Hatsin sea. Whatever change the former Pathà, could not prevail againft the may have occasioned in the prelent ancient prejudices of the villagers. appearance of the plain, the analo- It is accurately described by Chihul, dy taken froin those of Ephesus and Shuckford, and Chandler, and is


nów placed at the door of a low that towards the centre of the hut, consecrated as a chapel. The monument two large ftones were letters are nearly worn out, having found, leaning at an angle one abeen so long used as a bench to lit 'gainst the other, and forming a on. Advancing some furlongs over • kind of tent, under which was prethe promontory, we saw the barrow “fently discovered a small statue of (bethic tepèe) called the tomb of • Minerva feated in a chariot with Antilochus by Strabo. On the other four horses, and an urn of metal side of the village, under the brow • filled with alhes, charcoal, and huof the hill

, crowned by half a dozen may bones. This urn, now in the windmills, near the sea, are two poffeffion of le compte Choiseul, is smaller tumuli, generally supposed encircled in fculpture with a vine to be those, one of which is attribut- branch, from which are suspended ed by the ancient geographers to • bunches of grapes, done with exthe illustrious friends Achilles and quifite art.' Two pages

of learn Patroclus, and the other to Peneleus ed commentary succeed this allerthe Baotian. Since the opening tion, which introduces a curious hyand discoveries made in the former, pothefis respecting early Grecian by order of the French embassador, sculpture. M. le compte de Choiseul Gouffier, “ From information gained from in 1787, some dervishes have built the only person present at the opentheir convent against it, and placed ing of the barrow, whose fimple de a clay cabin on the top. They now tail the favour of a friend enables use the barrow as a cemetery. me to subjoin *, it is probable that “ N. Chevalier has informed us, nothing was found which could



I had a very interefing conversation with the son of the late French consul, Sig. Solomon Ghorinezano, relative to the opening of the tomb of Achilles, near the Sigean promontory. He said that he had bern employed by count Choiseul Gouffier to exa

mine the tumulus and to search for remains, and that he worked at it by night, deceive ring the aghà and people with the hopes of discovering a spring of water, fo neccffary to * the inhabitants of Yeni-cheyr. Two months elapfcd in this work, as no other perfun ' fuperintended. He frequently wished to decline it in despair, but was directed to per

ferere. At length be discovered the place where the reliques were deposited. He 'immediately collected the whole, and communicated his success to his employer, fill

ing a large cheft with what he had found. Mr. Choiseul enjoined him to bring them "to him, and not to trust them out of his fight; but he repaid his trouble with thanks 6 only. He was induced to reserve several fall specimens, which lie obliging!y showed and explained to us, as Mr. Choiseul was no longer formidable. • I lubjoin a list of them. 11. Pieces of burned boncs. 2. Pieces of a metal vase. I enquired particularly concerning the vase, and in what state it was originally found. He replied, that it

was broken, and had had a small ornament only, round the rim ; but that enough re. mained to determine the shape, and that it was of contiderable fize. What I'faw was *fo entirely destroyed by rust that no plausible conjecture could be formed from it. 3. • Charccal, made of vine branches. 4. A piece of inortar and none, which appeared to I have paffed through fire. 5. A piece of metal of a triangular fhape. 6. Pieces of

very fine pottery, well painted, with wreaths of flowers of a dark olive colour. He robserved that some of the picces of pottery seemed to liave composed large vases, bei fide which were several small cups, some of which were intire, and resembled Etrur

can ware. It might have been a funeral ceremony to have emptied there to the med mory of the deceased, and then to have placed them in the tomb. • He delivered likewise to Mr. Choiseul a fragment of brass about a foot and a half

K 4



justify such an account. Extreme horses' seem to prove that the age, and the pressure of the ground, Troad continues to be the land of had crumbled into atoms of rust all invention. It Pococke's opinion be the metallic substances. The urn, jutt, that Bethic tepee, on the Sior vafe, M. Fauval, an ingenious ar- gean ridge, on account of being tift now residing at Athens, receiv- more conipicuous at fea, was the ed from M. Choiseul in its decayed true fepulchre of Achilles and Pae ftate, and made a model from it, troclus, and the two on the shore which has been exhibited to several thote of Antilochus and another be connoisseurs, as much to their fur- r0, Chevalier's account is descrip prise as satisfaction; and the god- tion instead of truth.'

dess with her chariot and four

STATE of the People, and of CIVILIZATION in SCOTLAND, at the latter

end of the 14th, and at the beginning of the 15th Century.

[From the Firft Volume of PINKERTON'S HISTORY OF SCOTLAND, under

the House of STUART.]

THETHER education, cli- racter, is an important problem, dis

mate, or government, pro- cutled by many able writers, bat duce most effect on national cha- hitherto not sufficiently resolved. It


• long, and in the middle, being the thicker part, aboat the circumference of a quart "bottle, and weighing feven or eight pounds. It was, at firfi, called the hilt of a crurd, " but afterward Mr. Choifeul declared it to be the tatue of a man, with a lica uades I each root.

• 7. A small piece of a transparent fubfiarce, belonging, as he faid, to a liad of tube « worked and closed at one end. li may not be caly to conjecture for what use this was • intended. From his defcription of it, I collea, that it was about a svot long and

two inches in diameter, ornamented with branches in chased or embofed work, and of "lo transparent a nature, that objeds might be clearly seen through it. It had receive ed but light injury, haring only a small fraâure at the upper end.

• He then acquainted us with the different frata of earth he had dug through is opening the tomb. On the outside was a kind of lea fand, the same as that near it; "then rello with foil, folid but light; coloured earths, black and yellow, each fratuz * being two feet deep, with large fones. On the foundation of the barruv apparen:ly • vas a large flab, extending, as he fupposed, over the whole, as wherever he day be * will found it. In the middle was a hole twelre feet square, around which was raised a

wil three feet high, which was the fepulchre containing the reliques. By the weight of the earth all was preiled together, which accounts for the confused and broken fate in which the things were discovered. On the outside of this fone pas fireved a • quantity of lime, and then oi charcoal, fuppofed to be the athes of the funeral pile.

• When the barrows were clofeo up, count Choiseul placed a sheet of lead on the bot. tom infcribed “Ouvrage fait par le Compte de Choiseul Gouffer l'an 1787"!!! Ms. «Chevalier's ignorancc oi modern Greek led himn into a carious mifiake. The two cano tiguous barrows are called 'diheu tepe,' the two tombs. Mr. Chevalier bearing this snaipe from the villagers, immediately conjectures away with his . A$45 ' and puz arles timielf wit'ı mythology:

* October, 1795.

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muft however be granted by all, domestic morals, or diffuse the light that each has its share in exciting of instruction over a benighted naor depressing mental energy, in tion. These are the sacred proestablishing general industry or itt vinces of education, a cause of nadolence, in promoting public hap- tional character more prevalent than piness or milery. But of these either of the former, as it strikes grand causes education seems de- the very root of offerrce, and fows servedly to claim the pre-eminence. lasting feeds of intelligence and To deny the power of climate, worth. would be to forget that man is % But education, on the extensive • subject to the 1kyey influences ;' fcale here implied, remains an exyet his industry, or care, may gene- periment even to the most civilized rally overcome or elude its effects : nations; and its effects must neiand foil is almost equally subservient ther be regarded as speedy, nor into labour. Government exerts a finite. Even infants diiplay, some more pervading influence ; even the a perverse, others a placid difpofipeasant in his cottage is opprefled tion : and it is doubtful whether by the burning heat of defpotism, any care or art can eradicate, or or the blasting storms of anarchy. fubdue, the inborn temper. If the The rewards of his fabour cease bad habits of an individual prove amid the general distress: the ca- often unconquerable by reason or price of fome little tyrant, for llaves virtue, how deeply must such haare ever tyrants where they cart, or bits be rooted in a whole people, the revenge of a foc, may affail his where example operates like a conhovel ; and while his family perishes tagion? in penury, the labourer joins the “ Hence it is that the spirit, and mountain robbers, and falls the manners, of the people ought to vi&tim of those laws which afford- present the main objeèt of political ed bim no protection. Even mo- difcuffion on any particular state, derate governments affect domestic and the more especially where golife, and individuals, more than is vernment and education have little commonly conceived ; a war, a tax, force. In whatever form of admian unwise law, becomes an univer- nistration, only a part can thine fal misfortune ; while the benigni- upon the public theatre, and thus ty, and 1kill, of the rulers enlarge attract the notice of history. The the happiness of all. The influence, mass of the nation remains in oblike that of the ele&ric element, is fcurity, even in enlightened ages; rarely unveiled to the popular eye, and philosophy can only estimate though the subtile fuid operate its history by that of its manners, most widely on the public health. for which the best materials are to

“ In the oriental legiflations the be found, not in the pages of the connexion between laws and man- annalist, but in poems, novels, and -ners is often indiffoluble : and the romances. Barren however as are laws become perpetual, by being the annals of the poor, their state grafted on the habits of that crea- may always be justly estimated by ture of habit, man. In Europe, on that of the actors, who vaunt the contrary, the laws and manners and vanish in the historic scene ; are proverbially diftin&. Jurisdic- and from the progress of nations, tion punishes crimes, but rewards as savage, barbarous, or civilized. not virtues; far less can it improve The monkish page presents but a


small pulse, yet from it the health, Molto è el paese alpefro e peregrino, or fickiess, of the whole body may

E ha la gente ruvida e selvatica. be gathered with considerable cer

• Mountainous and ilrange is the coustainty.

try, “ In Scotland, at the period now " And the people rough and favage.' under review, the people were flowly advancing from barbarism to 66 The long and severe ordinanwards civilization. A peace of ces of Robert II. against murderers, fome duration had taken place be- and their receivers and supporters, fore the acceflion of the house of afford a proof that this charge was Stuart ; and the consequent inter- not unfounded. And the orders to course with England, a country then the army, not to pillage their own rapidly progreílive in the arts of comtrymen, present another inlife, must have increased the nati- stance of barbaric manners. The onal energy. Yet the feudal fet- Ketherani, Kerns, or marauding ters continued to be firmly rivet- highlanders, by continual inroads ted : every man was the foldier, or into the low countries greatly obthe menial attendant of his chief; structed the progress of indufiry and and flocks, herds, agriculture atford- civilization ; and this intestiné evil, ed only subfervient occupations. more pernicious than foreign invaWhile the fingle science of the fion, continued to a late period. great was war, their fule amuse- Strangers to that induftry which exment hunting, their chief magnifi- cites the Swiss peasant to cultivate cence a numerous train, it is no the precipice, and the Norwegian wonder that the poor were ferocious to derive that support from the sea and idle, fecure during health of a which the land refuses, the highmaintenance from their lords, and in landers supplied their wants by rae fickness of monastic charity. Cou- pine: and the civil animosity was rage, honesty, frankneís, attach- increased by the difference of oriment to their chiefs, constituted the gin, language, and manners; so that chief virtues of the peatantry ; tem- the difficulties with which the goa perance, and sobriety were the vir- vernment had to ftruggle, and the tnes of the soil: fpirituous liquors, obstacles against 'order, were perthat bane of the poor, were as yet haps greater in Scotland than in unknown in Europe, except among any other European kingdom. The the stores of the physician. Nor example of Henry II. of England, had religious fanaticism, that unin- who planted a Flemish calony in termitting intoxication, yet poisoned Wales, escaped the observation, or the popular mind with habitual exceeded the power, of our mogloom: the poor chiefly knew the narchs: and the complete transpofichristian religion from its charity, tion of the population of a province, , from the public exhortations of the though an expedient far from unpreaching friars, and from the gay known to the Persians, Greeks, and exhibitions of the Roman catholic Romans, appears to surpass the wiffyftem.

dom, or the enterprize of any later “ By more polished foreigners government. Scotland continued to be regarded “ Though the peasantry were in as a country completely barbarous. fact the flaves of their lords, by The author of the Dittamundi al- menial or by feudal bondage, yet lows that it is rich in fish, fic th, and few instances occur of absolute vilmilk, but,

lanage; and it is believed no exam


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