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ple appears in our records, of an meanest articles of manufacture, eftate fold with the farmers, labour- horse-thoes, harness, faddles, briers, and families, attached to the dles, were all imported ready made foil. The appellation busbond, give from Flanders. The houses of the en to the Scotish farmers, seems in common people were composed of deed to imply that they were confi- four or five posts to support the turf dered as bond flaves of their lord's walls, and a roof of boughs : three houte, or as fixed to their own par- days sufficed to erect the humble ticular farm-houles; yet what little mansion. A contemporary hiftoevidence remains teaches us to con- rian adds, that the country was sider them rather as llaves in cuf- •rather defert than inhabited, was tom, than in law. The busband lands, “almost wholly mountainous, and or farms, were divided into tillage "more abundant in lavages than in and pasturage, were always finall, cattle.' and the farmers of course poor. “ The English education of James The cotter who rears, his hovel of I. contributed to the civilization of turf and straw, onder an old thorn, his kingdom. Yet even in bis reign and cultivates three or four acres of the picture by Enea Silvio, afterthe common, would in these ages wards pope Pius II. is car from flathave been Ityled a farmer. Large tering. Concerning Scotland he farms undoubtedly advance agricul- found these things worthy of repeture; and perhaps the numerous tition. It is an island joined to labo irers employed are as useful England, ftretching two hundred and valuable members of society, as miles to the north, and about fifty if each farmed a fmall portion of broad; a cold country, fertile of land.

few forts of grain, and generally “ With the acceflion of the house void of trees, but there is a fulof Stuart, a stronger light begins 10 phureous stone dug up which is arise on the internal ttate of Scot- used for firing. The towns are unland. Barbour wrote his celebrated walled, the houses commonly built poem in 1375 ; and in narrating the without lime, and in villages roofed actions of Robert I. he presents ma- with turf, while a cow's hide fupny pictures of the times and man- plies the place of a door. The comners, the lapse of half a century be- monany are poor and uneducated, ing imperceptible in the flow pro- have abundance of fleth and fish, grefs of civilization. But the curi- but eat bread as a dainty. The ofity of Froitlart a stranger has pre- men are small in ftature, but bold; served the strongest features: and the women fair and comely, and his visit to Scotland forms an epoch prone to the pleasures of love; killin the history of national manners. es being there esteemed of less conFrom his account it appears that the sequence than preiling the hand is French, themfelves regarded by the in Italy. The wine is all imported; Italians as barbarians, thuddered the horses are mostly fmall ambling at the penury and barbarity of Scot- nags, only a few being preferred land. Even in the Doule Escocbe entire for propagation, and neither or low lands, (for the highlanders of curry-combs nor reins are ufcd. la Sauvage Escocbe were considered The oysters are larger than in Engas we now do American savages,) land. From Scotiand are importa remarkable ignorance prevailed ed into Flanders hides, wool, falt of the communeit arts of life. The fish, and pearls. Nothing gives the


Scots more pleasure than to hear the whom the jurisdiction lay, either English dispraised. The country is did not attend, or voted with a divided into two parts, the cultivat- fraile. And the frequent repetition ed low-lands, and the region where of the fame laws, even so late as the agriculture is not used. The wild reigns of James IV. and V. conScots have a different language, and spires with the records of history to sometimes eat the bark of trees, convince us, that the statutes rather There are no wolves. Crows are indicate the erils that did exift, than new inhabitants, and therefore the the remedy of these evils. The tree in which they build becomes roots of national habits are too royal property. At the winter fol- deep to be affected by the thunder of stice, when the author was there, laws, the flow divulfion of educathe day did not exceed four hours.' tion can alone explode them. In another place, Silvio observes Among the statutes of the first that the fabulous tale of the barna- James, the following are the most cles, the invention of dreaming pertinent to the present difcuffion. monks, had passed from Scotland That no private wars be allowed; to the Orkneys: and that coals that none travel with more attenwere given to the poor at the dants than they maintain; that no church doors, by way of alms, the fornars shall force their refidence country being denuded of wood. upon the clergy or farmers; that in

“ The vigorous administration burghs, and on high ways, inns of James I. imparted tranquillity be erected; and that no beggars and happiness to the people; and be permitted, except distinguished was often regretted by them during by a badge importing the leave of the distractions of the subsequent the magiftrates: and the hospitals reigns. Till this period the fa- for the poor and fick are ordered to tutes were concealed from the na- be reformed. A remarkable law tion in the darkness of the Latin ordains, that all idle persons, with. language ; the good sense of this out means of livelihood, shall be immonarch ordered them to be issued prisoned, till they give security, and in the Scouth tongue, while in Eng- fhall within forty days betake themland the laws were to be dictated in felves to fome service or craft. The Latin and French till the reign of trial of the causes of the poor is deRichard III. Thus religion, and clared to be gratuitous. law, the sole rules of popular con “ The institution of inns, repeat. duct, were veiled from the people; edly enforced, was perhaps calcu. but there is no absurdity which man lated to save the monafteries from has not reduced to practice. The the frequent intrusion of numerous statutes of James are wisely ordain- guests; but the necessity of such ed to advance civilization, and the laws indicates a radical defeat in cisanguine theorist may exult in their vilization. The first object of the effects; but they rather proclaim Romans, after the conquest of a the intelligence of the monarch, barbaric country, was to open high and of his ecclefiaftic ministers, ways through it; for on mutual and than the national advancement. eafy intercourse all civilization deOrdinances prepared in the cabinet pends. Yet this first and indispenby wife and good men, were passed fable step is unknown in our taby the lo: ds of the articles; while tutes. Some regulations appear conthe peers and landholders, with cerning ferries; but till within there

fifty years the roads in Scotland them, except to prevent imposition, were hardly paflable. And while Theywould have charged for holithe Swiss cuts his way through the days, and undertaken more work Alps, our mole hills in the high- than they could accomplish, while lands present insuperable barriers. one craftiman would refuse the work The civilization of a country is al- neglected by another. The fole inways in exact proportion to the tention of these acts seems to have number, and condition, of its high been to break the monopoly. ways.

The omission of this one • James I. ha: himself delineated law was radical, and obstructed all the manners of the common peothe others.

ple, in his poem called Peblis to the " In the burghs a greater de- Play. This play was probably an gree of civilization must have pre- annual festival, in hono ir of the vailed than 1:1 the country; but the saint to whom the church was deinhabitants of the burghs were few, dicated, or on fome other occasion ; compared with the general popula- and such wakes are yet known in tion. Froitlart estimates the houses the north of England. The humour in Edinburgh, then the capital, at and jollity of the meeting end in tufour thoutand; they were small mult and uproar, but display a very wooden cottages, covered with different character to the gloomy fastraw ; for modern Edinburgh, with naticism of the two lucceeding cenits houfes of ten or twelve stories, turies. From this ángular poem, acannot date higher than Mary's mong other articles of manners, we reign, when all the French customs learn that the women wore kerof Scotland really commenced. By chiefs and hoods, and tippets; the a common calculation the inhabi- music arose from the bagpipe; the tants of the capital, in the reign of men sometimes wore hats of birchRobert Il. hardly exceeded fixteen twigs interwoven, the hat being any thousand.

high covering of the head, while the “ For some unknown cause, bonnet was fat. A tavern, with James I. prohibited the election of fair table linen, and a regular score deacons of crafts; perhaps they ab on the wall, are introduced: the used their power in exciting fedi. reckoning twopence halfpenny a tion; perhaps the genuine fpirit piece, is collected in a wooden of a corporation began to operate in trencher. The cadger, or packman monopoly, and oppression. But a who carries fish, &c. through the warden and council are ordered to country, on his little horse; the falregulate prices, the warden to be mon dance, consisting in exertions chosen by the council of the burgh, of high leaping; and other anccand not, as the deacons, by the dotes of popular manners, diversify craftsmen themselves. Mafons, car- the piece. penters, smiths, taylors, weavers, are

6 The dress of the common peothe only trades mentioned in the sta- ple consisted chiefly of a doublet tute. The institution of corpora• and cloke, and a kind of fort tions by patent seems unknown in trowse; the head was covered with Scotland, till the reign of James IV. a hat of basket-work, or felt, or the crafts embodied and regulated with a woolen bonnet; while the themselves; and the attention of go- legs and feet remained bare. Shirts vernment was bardly diverted to were hardly known even to the


great. The female dress was a ker- ed with oatmeal, or fish, supplied chief or a hood, and a tippet about more solemn meals. Bread and rethe neck : the kirtle, or close gown, getables were little used, a circumwas rarely accompanied either with Itance to which it may perhaps be the wylicot or under petticoat, or imputed that the leprosy was not with the mantle ; and the feet were. uncommon. The chief tifh was the naked.

salmon, concerning the capture of “ As the state of society was ra- which many regulations occur in ther pastoral than agricultural, milk, the acts of parliament, and which and its various preparations, formed also formed a grand article in the a chief article of food. Meat boil- Scotish exports."

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An Account of the Means employed to obtain an overflowing

Well; in a Letter to the Right HONOUR ABLE SIR JOSEPH

(From the Second Part of the PhiloSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the

ROYAL SOCIETY of LONDON, for the YEAR 1797.]

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In beginning to fink this well, ERMIT me, in compliance which has a diameter of four feet,

with your request, to give the land springs were stopped out you a short account of the well at in the usual manner, and the well Norland House, belonging to Mr. was funk and steined to the bottom. L. Vulliamy; a work of great la- When the workmen had got to the bour and expence, executed entire- depth of 236 feet, the water was ly under my direction, and finished judged not to be very far off, and it in November, 1794.

was not thought safe to sink any “ Before I begun the work, 1 deeper. A double thickness of considered that it would be of infi- steining was made about 6 feet nite advantage, Thould a spring be from the bottom upwards, and a found strong enough to rise over the borer of 5 inches diameter was surface of the well; and though I made use of. A copper pipe of the thought it very improbable, yet I fame dianieter with the borer was resolved to take from the beginning driven down the bore-hole to the the fame precautions in doing the depth of 24 feet, at which depth work, as if I had been assured that the borer pierced through the rock such a spring would be found. into the water; and by the manner But although this very laborious of its going through, it must proundertaking has succeeded beyond bably have broken into a stratum my expcétation, yet from the know- containing water and sand. At the ledge i bave acquired in the pro- time the borer burst through, the greis of the wok, I am of opinion top of the copper pipe was about that it will very seldom happen that three feet above the bottom of the the water will rise to high; nor will well: a mixture of sand and water people, I believe, in general, be so instantly rushed in through the aindeftigable as I have been in perture of the pipe. This happened the various difficulties about two o'clock in the afternoon, that did and ever will occur, in and by twenty minutes past three bringing such a work to perfec- o'clock the water of the well stood tion.

within 17 feet of the surface. The


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