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water rose the first 124 feet in also be liable to be filled with land eleven minutes, and the remaining in the same manner that this was. 119 feet in one hour and nine mi- The operation of digging was again nutes. The next day several buck- necesarily resorted to, and the land ets of water were drawn out, so as was drawn up in buckets until about to lower the water four or five feet; 60 feet of it were drawn out, and and in a short time the water again consequently, there remained only rose within 17 feet of the surface. 36 feet of sand in the well: that A found-line was then let down being too light to keep the water into the well in order to try its down, in an instant it forced again depth. To our great surprise the into the well with the same violence well was not found by 96 feet so it had done before ; and the man deep as it had been measured be who was at the bottom getting out fore the water was in it; and the the land, was drawn up almoti fuflead brought up a sufficient quan- focated, having been covered all tity of sand to explain the reason of over by a mixture of sand and wa. this difference, by thewing that the ter. In a short time the water rose water had brought along with it 96 again within 17 feet of the surface, feet of fand into the well. Whe- and then ceased to rise, as before. ther the copper pipe remained full When the water had ceased rising, of sand or not, is not easy to be de- the founding-line was again let termined; but I should rather be in- down, and the well was found to clined to think it did not.
contain full as much fand as it did 1. After the well had continued the first time of the water's coming in the same state several days, the into it. water was drawn out so as to lower “ Any further attempt towards it eight or ten feet; and it did not recovering the water appeared now rise again by about a foot fo high as in vain ; and most people would, I it had risen before. At some days believe, have abandoned the uninterval water was again drawn out, dertaking. I again considered that so as to lower the water as before; the labour and the expence would which at each time of drawing rofe be all loft by to doing i and I deless and less, until after some consi- termined without delay to set about derable time it would rise no more; drawing the sand out through the and the water being then all drawn water, by means of an iron box out, the sand remained perfectly made for that purpose, without give dry and hard.
I now began to ing it time to harden as before. think the water loft; and, conse. The labour attending on this opequently, that all the labour and ex. ration was very great, as it was repence of finking this well, which ceffary continually to draw out the by this time were pretty confidera- water, for the purpose of keeping it ble, had been in vain. There re- conftantly rifing through the fand, mained no alternative but to en- and thereby to prevent the sand deavour to recover it by getting out from hardening. What rendered the fånd, or all that had been done this operation the more discourage would be useless; and although it ing was, that frequently after har. became a more difficult task than ing drawn out fix or seven feet of finking a new well might have been, fand in the course of the day, upon yet I determined to undertake it, founding the next morning the fand because I knew another well might was found lowered only one foot in
the well, so that more fand must cient power to take off all the have come in again. This, how. water that the spring could furnifh, cver, did not prevent me from pro- at 11 feet below the surface. The ceeding in the same manner during stage and cylinder were to contrivseveral days, though with little or ed as to prevent the pollibility of no appearance of any advantage any thing falling into the well; arifing from the great exertions we and I contrived a gage, by which were making. After persevering, the men upon the stage could alhowever, for some considerable ways ascertain to the greatest extime, we perceived that the water actness the height of the water rose a little nearer to the surface, within the cylinder. This precauand I began to entertain fome hope tion was essentially necessary, in that it might perhaps rise high order to keep the water a foot beenough to come above the level low the work which was doing on of the ground; but when the wa- the outside of the cylinder, to preter had risen a few feet higher in vent the new work from being the well, some difficulties occurred, wetted too soon. After every thing occasioned by accidental circum was prepared, we were employed stances, which very much delayed eight days in taking down 10 feet the progress of the work, and it of the wall of the well
, remedying remained for a considerable time the defects, and building it up avery uncertain whether the water gain; during which time ten men would run over the top of the well were employed, five relieving the or not.
other five, and the two pumps were “ These difficulties being at kept constantly at work during one length surmounted, we continued hundred and ninety-two hours. during several days the process be. By the assistance of the gage, the fore mentioned, of drawing out the water was never suffered to rise land and water alternately; and I upon the new work until it was had the satisfaction of seeing the made fit to receive it. When the water rise higher and higher, until cylinder was taken out, the water at last it ran over the top of the again ran over into the temporary well, into a temporary channel that channel that cotiveyed it into the conveyed it into the road. I then road. flattered myself that every difficul. “ The top of the well was afterty was overcome; but a few days wards raised 18 inches, and conafterwards I discovered that the structed in such a manner as to be upper part of the well had not been able to convey the water five difproperly constructed, and it be- ferent ways at pleasure, with the came necessary to take down about power of being able to set any of 10 feet of brickwork. The water, these pipes dry at will, in order to which was now a continued stream, repair them whenever occasion rendered this extremely difficult to should require. The water being execute. I began by conftructing now entirely at command, I again a wooden cylinder 12 feet long, resolved upon taking out more which was let down into the well, sand, in order to try what additi. and suspended to a strong wooden onal quantity of water could be obkage above, upon which I had fix- tained thereby. I cannot exaaly ed two very large pumps, of suffiascertain the quantity of sand taken 1797.
out, but the increase of water ob- ture and art, is deserving your attained was very great; as instead tention, I feel myself much gratiof the well discharging thirty gal. fied in the pleafure I have in giv. lons in a minute, the water was ing you this description of it; and now increased to forty-fix gallons have the honour of being with the in the same time.
greatest regard, “ If you think, sir, that the a
« Sir, &c. bove account of an overflowing
“ B. VULLIANY." well, the joint production of na
ECONOMY of the VINEYARDS of the celebrated TOKAY WINE.
[From Townson's Travels in HUNGARY, &c.]
THE vines when first planted that is, at the end of March, or at
are cut down at a knot, to the beginning of April. Time, lewithin a span of the foil, and the vere winters, and spring frosts, superfluous young lhoots are cut cause ravages in the vineyards : off every spring at the same place: to make good these deficiencies, by this means a bead is formed, fresh 'vincs must be raised. This is which increases yearly; sometimes done in different ways, by transthey are very large, but the best planting, and more commonly by fize is that of a child's head. When planting the cuttings of known the vines have repaid by their fruit good and sound vines; and this is the industrious labourer for his the next bufiness to be performed. trouble, which is late in autumn, The cuttings (the points of which the stumps are covered an inch or foon withering must be cut away) two thick with soil, and then each should be put knee-deep in the represents a mole-hill. Often, it foil, with a little dung, the other is said, the husbandman is seen fol- end to be only a span above ground, lowing his gatherers occupied in which should be covered up till it this work, left early frost or snow is probable it has begun to Thoot, should prevent its being done ; and the spring weather is no longer sometimes even the branches, if to be feared. Or they are railed designed for layers, are covered. by layers. Here the foil is dug out Some vine-dretters take out the from about the fump and roots sticks and lay them in bundles, till the hole is a foot and a half others leave them standing. As deep ; these then are trod to the soon as the winter is over, and the bottom of it, so that the branches, weather begins to grow milder, where they are inserted in the which is about the middle of stump, are under ground, and the March, and often at the beginning, remaining part is laid down and the Itunips are gain uncovered, covered with the soil mixed with a and the foil about them turned up: little dung, so that their points this labour is followed by the drel- only reach a few inches above the ing, which is generally done as surface of the soil. To each of Coun 25 the season will permit; these branches, which in time be
comes a new vine, a stick is given. which is called by us Tokay. As Then follows the feverest labour foon as the grapes begin to grow of the vineyard, the digging or ripe, guards are placed in the videturning up the soil : this is re- yards, not only to prevent the peated three or four times before grapes from being stolen, but to the vintage. Soon after the first drive away the birds from them. digging, the sticks are driven in; “ At last the season of rejoicing to which the shoots, when they are comes, the vintage.
the vintage. In every about two feet long, are lightly country this a time of mirth and bound: when they are grown to gaiety ; but particularly fo about five feet they are better bound; Tokay. Many of the great nobilionce pretty fast above, and once ty, though they have no estate looser in the middle. Weeds by here, and live in diftant parts of this time again begin to grow, and Hungary, have a vineyard here, the soil is again turned up to de- and business as well as pleasure stroy them, and to keep it light : brings many of them at this seabut during the flowering of the fon; and the dealers in this article vine, nothing is done ; nature is come likewise to make their conleft entirely to herself. This be tracts, and the friends of all coning over, the sticks are driven firm- cerned, from a tacit invitation, er in the ground; the vines which come to join in the general festimay have come untied are bet- vity: the vintage is preceded by ter secured ; the too luxurious fairs, so that during this season all growth is taken away, and the is life and bustle. vines are so ordered that they may “ To the troken-beers, or halfrequire no farther care till the vin- dried luscious grapes, Tokay, that tage ; only the soil is once more is, the Tokay ausbruche, is indebted turned up. Now the husband for all its richness: but these de. man's toil is over, and he waits pend greatly on the weather ; every for the blessing of Providence in a year does not produce them either fine vintage with anxiety - for in the same quantity or quality; in very uncertain are his profits. some years they fail altogether. If
“ Though in warm seasons the the frosty mornings set in too soon, earliest grapes are ripe in the mid-'and, before the grapes are ripe, dedle of August, it is the latter end stroy the connection between them of September before the greater and the vines, the aufbruche is part are eatable; and as the grapes harsh and sour; yet frosty mornfor presling must be fully ripe, the ings, when not too soon, are advintage is delayed as long as por- vantageous to them : if wet weaGble; generally to the feast of ther lets in at the time they ought, Saint Simon and Saint Jude, which through the influence of the sun, is the 28th of October ; and if the to lose their watery parts, and to weather is fine, the later the bet- be turned to sirup, it may easily be ter, on account of having the great conceived what will be the conseer quantity of the half-dried luf- quence. These troken-beers are al. cious grapes, or, as they are here ways trifling in quantity compared called, troken-beers; which are with the other grapes; and in some absolutely neceffary to form the years, as I have juit said, there are aufbruche, ihat kind of Tokay wine none at all. which is so much esteemed, and " The season for gathering being
come, young and old, with merry come to the top, and are taken out hearts and active hands, repair to with a net or lieve : thus it remains the vineyards, and ease the vines in the same vessel, covered over for of their precious loads : but in do- a couple of days, till fermentation ing this, the troken-beers are pick- begins; and this is suffered to coa. ed from the reft, and kept apart; tinue about three days, according to and they are often fold to those the weather; that is, till the ferwho make aufbruche, by those who mentation has properly mixed the do not. The spoil carried home, dethy pulp of the troken-beers with the ordinary grapes are trod apart, the common juice: it Ihould be and the juice is taken out, and stirred every morning and evening, then the remaining juice is preffed and the seeds carefully taken out. out from the ikins and stalks: both If the fermentation is continued too are commonly put together in tubs, long, the wine receives from the no difference being generally made skins a disagreeable brown colour, between the juice trod gut and that and forms a deal of yeast and sedipressed out. This when fermented ment in the cafk. Nothing now forsos the common wine; which remains to be done, but to pour is not sent out of the country as a this liquor through a cloth or fiere delicacy, and never reaches our into the barrels in which it is to be island." The troken-beers are like- kept. The refiduum is then preffwile trod, and then have the con- ed : forne even after this, pour the a stency of honey: to this is added common juice upon this presled rethe common juice; and as the rich- fiduum ; but if the press is good the ness of the aufbruche or mafchlafs common wine gains little by it. depends on the greater quantity of “ When a confiderable quantity the juice of the troken-beers, the of the troken-beers remains a short proportions vary according to the time together, some of their thick intent of the owner. The common juice or firup is expressed and runs proportion for an antal of auf- out: this is carefully collected as a bruche, which contains seventeen great delicacy; it is called essence, or eighteen English gallons, is two and has the consistence of treacle. bufhel of troken-heers; and for a No art is used to fine these wines, calk of maschlass, which is only a nor to make them keep. The bar. less rich liquor, the fame quantity rels thould be kept full, and their is taken: but then the cask is about outsides free from wet and milequal to two antals; so that only dew. half the quantity of troken-beers “ Aufbruche is not exclufively are used to make maichlafs as are made about Tokay : there is a Saint ased to make aufbruche. But as George, a Ratchd and a methe police does not interfere in this vische aufbruche, and this latter I matter, and every one does as he prefer to that of Tokay; it is red: thinks proper, these two liquors are some is made likewile in the county oftep very near alike, and the prin- of Oedenberg. cipal difference then consists in the “ The best wine does not long fize of the casks.
remain in the place of its growth • The mixture being made, it is a great part of it is soon sent into Itrongly furred together. By this the cellars of the nobility in other operation the feeds are separated parts of Hungary; and the greatest from the fell of the grapes, and quantity is to be found in the coun