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dered all those in his service to quit engravings of the requisite inftruthis order, he was fo displeased ments and machinery. To suppose that he returned the academy of that his success, whilft it brought Munich the diploma they had sent him fame and emolument, did not him on their receiving him amongft draw upon him the envy and ill then, publicly avowed his attach- will of many of his brother me, ment to the order, and thought it tallurgifts and associates in office, proper to break off all further con would show a great ignorance of nection with Bavaria as a member what is daily pafling in common of its literary society. The Free life. Envy has its Thare even in Maloos did not long retain the pa- maintaining order in society : it is tronage of their fovereign ; the this which tends to keep the great emperor Jofeph foon became jea- from rising higher, whilst a conJous of their influence, and put trary paflion litts up the little, or them under fuch restrictions, and prevents them from falling lower. clogged them with finh incin “ Though great cabals were brances, as to amount almost to a raised against him, and against the prohibition; and as such they act: introduction of his method, yet the éd, for the fociety found it necef- adrantages of it in many cales sary to diffolve.

were so evident, that the emperor * What raised the baron so high ordered it to be used in his Hunin the public opinion, was his garian mines; and as a recompense knowledge of minera' y, and his for his discovery, gave him for ten faccessful experiments in metallur years the third part of the savings gy, and principally in the process arifing from its application, and of amalgamation. The use of four per cent. of this third part quickfilver in extracting the noblé for the next twenty years. Even metals from their ores, was not a this did not defend him from being difcovery of the baron's, nor of still harassed by his enemies ; obthe century in which he lived ; yet stacles were still thrown in the way he extendect fo far its application in to prevent the introduction and metallurgy as to form a brilliant success of his discovery, and to epoch in this most important art. defraud him of his well-earned reAfter he had at great expence made compense. many private experiments, and was “ Though he suffered very much convinced of the utility of his me in the latter part of his life, yet chod, he laid before the emperor this did not prevent him from conan account of his discovery, who tinuing his literary pursuits. In gave orders that a decifive experi. 1790 he published his · Catalogue ment on a large quantity of ore methodique raisonné' of the colfhould be made at Schemnitz'in lection of fodils of Miss Raab, Hungary. To see this he invited which had been chiefly formed by many of the most celebrated chy. his donations. This work, eles mists and metallurgilts of Europe ; gantly printed in two volumes, was and Ferber, Elhujer, Charpentier, well received by the public, and Trebra, Poda, and many more were he was writing the • Falti Leopolpresent, and approved of his inven- dini,' and a mineralogical work, tion. On this general approbation when death put an end to his usehe published, by order of the em- ful life and to his sufferings. peror, bis Treatise on the Process of “ Notwithsianding the varied adAmalgamation, with a great many vice of his physicians, his disease

continued : in such a state quacks emperor Joseph was making his find easy access to the fick; who reforms in the church : indeed, at is not then ready to seize the nor any other time such a severe facire trum of the bold pretender ? One on the monks would not have been of these gave him a decoction permitted. They are characterised which foon calmed his sufferings, thus: and which he was assured would Monachus. care him in a few weeks. He conti. ! Descriptio. - Animal avarum, nued the use of this for the laft fætidum, immundum, fiticulofum, five months of his life : it really iners, inediam potius tolerans quain diminished his pains; but his ? labotem;

vivunte rapina et quæsfriends observed that his cheerful. Stu; mundum sui tantum caufa cre: ness which hitherto had not left ! atum effe prædicant; coeunt clap: bim, diminished likewise, and that destine, nuptias non celebrant

, fæ spasms often attacked his upper ! tus exponunt; in propriam speciem limbs. On the 21st of July, 1791, • fæviunt, et hoftem ex infidiis ago he was seized with spasms and cold; grediuntur. Ulus. Terræ pondas the former foon subsided on fric' inutile. Fruges consumere nati: tion, but he lost his speech. On And upon the order of Dominican the subsequent days he had differ- he says — Eximio olfactu pollet, ent attacks till the 28th, when he vinum et hæresin e longinquo odo found himself better, but he was ! rat. Elurit semper polyphagus, foon attacked again with spafms, Juniores fame probantur, Veteand in these he expired.

rani, relegata omni cura et occu, “ Born was of a middle fize and patione, gulæ indulgent, cibis fuc, delicate constitution, dark com-culentis nutriuntur, molliter cuplexion, black hair, and large black ? bant, tepide quiescunt, fomnom eyebrows. Wit and satire, and a • protrahunt, et ex fuis diæta cu. quick comprehension, were mark- rant, ut esca omnis ip adipem transed in his eyes, and his lively and eat, lardumque adipiscantur: hinc penetrating genius appeared in his abdomen prolixum paffim præ se countenance. Besides being a good « ferunt ; seues yentrịcofi maxime Latin claslic, he was master of most æftimantur. Virginitatis facræ oto European languages of note, and res in venerem volgivagam proni poffefred a deal of general infor- ruunt. Generi humano et fanæ mation no ways connected with rationi infestislima species, in cu. those branches of science required jus creatione non se jacayit auc, in his profession. He was a great ! tor naturæ.' wit and satirist, and a good com “ The archbishop of Vienna panion even under the sufferings of complained to the emperor againft bodily pain. His too liberal and this work; who replied, that it unguarded use of satire made him was only the idle and useless part many enemies.

In his youthful of the spiritual order which was days he wrote the 'Staats Perücke' attacked. This was seconded by for the amusement of his friends: his · Defenfio Physiophili;' and to this was afterwards published with this succeeded his • Anatomia Moout his knowledge. But nothing 'nachi.' He wrote likewise a fa. Mhows more his talent for satire tire on Father Hell the astronomer, than his Monachologia,' which by publishing a long Latin advertisehe published in 1783, just when the ment, full of irony, announcing a

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book written against the Free-ma- attentive to æconomy in his domelsons, in the name of this learned tic concerns ; though I believe his Jefuit.

infolvency was chiefly owing to “ It must not be forgotten, that usurers and money Jenders, to his house was always open to the whom he was obliged to have retravelling literati who visited Vi course to carry on his expensive eona ; and that unprotected geni-, projects. Through these, though us was always sure to find in him a his patrimony was very consifriend and patron. He carried this derable, he died greatly in debt : perhaps too far, so far as to ruin this is the more to be lamented, his eltate; probably the expectations as he left a wife and two daughof receiving a large income from ters.” the amalgamation, made him less

MEMOIRS of Dr. ZIMMERMAN.

(Extracted from the Life of M. ZIMMERMAN, Counsellor of State,

Chief Physician to the King of England at HANOVER, &c. Translated from the French of $. A. D. Tissot, M. D. F. R. S. &c.]

JOWI

OHN George Zimmerman ken, and though he followed his

was born at Brug, a town in studies in German cities, and pairthe German part of the Canton of ed a very thort time in France, he Berne, on the 8th of Dec. 1728. yet spoke and wrote the two lanHe was the son of the senator J. guages with equal facility. Zimmerman, of one of those fami “ He was brought up in his falies, as there are many even in the ther's house under able Masters till smalleft towns of Switzerland, and the age of fourteen, when he was without doubt in other parts of Eu- sent to Berne, where he studied the rope, which, without any of those belles lettres under M. Kirchbertitles of rank that are obtained in guer, professor of eloquence and monarchies, fometimes by money, hiftory, and M. Altman, profeffor but often through favour or in- of Greek; to both of whom he al. fluence, have diftinguithed them ways acknowledged great obliga. selves for ages by the integrity with tions. At the end of three years which they have filled the highest he passed into the school of philoemploynients in their country for fophy, the profesor of which, a the advantage of their fellow-citi. zealous disciple of Mr. Wolf, knew zens. The inother of M. Zimmer- of philosophy only the metaphysics man was a miss Pache of Morges, of his master, and employed the a town in the French part of the whole year in explaining a very fame canton, and daughter to a small part even of them. It may easily celebrated counsellor, who had be imagined how much such a meformerly belonged to the parlia- thod would tend to disgust an acment of Paris. This circumstance tive mind with a science, which, is mentioned because it serves to well taught, is of infinite use to explain why, though born in a pro- every perion who wishes to study vitice where German only is ípo- well; and which has even its al1797

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lurements,

Jurements, inasmuch as we feel the name of Haller, in whid our minds enlarged in proportion Berne gloried, did not permit him as we learn to generalize the ideas to think of studying any where but we have already acquired, and add at Goettingen. He arrived there to them others upon subjects, the on the 12ch of September 1747, very aspect of which had at first and took his degree on the 14th of fight terrified us.

August 1751. By Haller he was Zimmerman, therefore, never received as if he had been his own thought himself indebted to M. fon; he took him into his house, Brunner for what he learned of true he affifted hiin with his advice, diphilosophy at Berne (and he cer rected his studies, and was to him tainly did learn a great deal there), a father, preceptor, and friend. but to Mesirs. James Tribolet and Under MM. Haller, Richter, Seg. J. Stapfer, both of them ministers, ner, and Brendel, he cultivated and distinguished by their genius with the same attention every and their learning,

branch of the medical art. He “ It was during his refidence at followed the practical lessons of Berne, that in 1746, a fhort time Richter, a pupil of Boerhaave's after my departure for Montpellier, and bred up in his system, the he came to Morges to pass several principles of which will always be months with his mother's relations ; safe guides at the bedside of the at my return, four years after- fick, notwithstanding the conwards, his genius, his' good sense, tempt which many physicians, dehis amiable and cheerful difpofi- firous of becoming chiefs of setts, tion, were still spoken of with have affected to throw on them, in pleasure ; and when in 1751 I read hopes to raise the reputation of their his fine Dissertation op Irrita

own by discrediting those of that bility, I already knew and loved great man. the author ; a partiality which con “ M. Zimmerman also attended tributes more than may be gene- the lectures of M. Brendel on the tally imagined to make one ap- fame fubje. This gentleman prove a man's doctrine, even when joined to an excellent underftandit is not invincibly demonstrated, ing a profound knowledge of phy as it certainly is in the work of M. fic, and visited a great many pa: Zimmerman.

tients : he frequently conceived “ His father died a short time

new and happy ideas; and bis lefafter he had been placed at Berne; fons became on that account useand just before the year 1747, in ful and interesting, although which he was to have finithed his fondness for lystem has now and Itudies in philosophy, he had the then led him astray. misfortune to lose his excellent “ Ziminerman' did not, howa mother. Thus was he left with ever, confine himself to the study out a friend to consult upon the of physic: under M. Segner be choice of a profeffion ; a circum- studied mathematics and natural stance at all times to be lamented; philofophy; he also learned the but which has, in some cates, the English language and studied Eng. advantage of allowing the inclina- lith' literature, which he loved and tion to follow its own bent, and cultivated all his life. Pope and thereby perhaps of insuring suc- Thomson were as familiar to hiin ceís. 'Without hesitation he de- as Homer and Virgil, and the beft termined in favour of physic; and French poets. He acquired under

M. Achenval

He gave

M. Achenval the knowledge of the glory of the diseovery was reserved Itates of Europe. It is doubtful for M. Haller. whether the lessons he received “ Cliffon, a celebrated English from this master were lessons of anatomist, had remarked, in fome politics properly so called, or of parts of the human body, a finguthat science which now makes so lar property of contraction upon much noise under the name of sta being touched, although there tistics ; but from several passages in should be no feeling in the part, his letters I am inclined to think and he called that property irritathey comprized the principles of bility. M. Haller imagined, that both.

if the fibres of the heart had the “ The four years which he pal same property, as several operaed at Goettingen were, as may be tions appeared to indicate, it was feen, well employed.

without doubt the cause of its himself up to study with the great movements; and he assumed this eft ardour; and was supported by poftulatum in his · Outlines of that inward feeling which already • Physiology,' which appeared in told him what he should one day 1747. Still, however, it was only become. In taking poffeffion for a conjecture, which it was neceíhim of an estate left him in this sary to demonstrate or overturn; country by an aunt, I found in one and M. Zimmerman undertook to of his letters, dated from Goettin make the requisite experiments. gen in 1748, the following paf- The general plan was, no doubt, fage : I lead here the life of a given him by Haller; it was ne• man who wishes to live after cessary that he should tell him « his death. This life, however, what he wished to have discovered, is not that which brings good and point out the means which he health; and his began already to intended should be employed: sedecay. He had at that time a veral experiments he suggested, and Night attack of the hypochon- saw them performed; but it is not dria.

less true, that the greatest part of “ Part of the last year that he the work, its reduction to a plan, spent at Goettingen was employed the perfpicuity of arrangement, and upon a work which afterward be

many of the conclusions, are by came the basis of his reputation. Zimmerman, who registered down The continual action of the heart, his experiments, his researches, and which from the first moment of his reflections, in a thesis which is animation, until death, never ceases the fundamental work upon this alterpately to contract and dilate subject, and to which are fairly atitself, with a regularity which is tributable all the changes that have only deranged by certain passions fince been made in the theory of and certain disorders, has been re phyfic. From the moment when garded by observers as one of the that book was published, the name molt curious phenomena of nature. of Zimmerman resounded through Every physician who had studied all Europe." the animal economy had endea “ Upon quitting Goettingen, voured to explain it; a multitude where he had for fellow-ftudents of causes had been imagined, none the most distinguished characters of which were fatisfactory, because (Meffrs. Ath, Aurivilius, De Brun, neither was the true one; and the Caftel, Meckel, Schobinger, Fre

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