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merce, which feeds the national re- his object in this publication. That sources, which supply the national inftitution was called the original revenues, which furnith our sup- Security Bank: but, whether it plies by sea and land, which alone was owing to any defeat in its prin. can maintain the war, which alone ciples, to want of support, of to can infure us a peace." This plan whatever other cause, its proprieembraces three obje&s. The first is tors became bankrupts before the the institution of a national bank, end of the year. from which he would advise the is. The treatise entitled “ the Inisuing of twelve millions of paper quity of Banking," in two parts, is currency, in notes stamped with the the production of a shrewd and able king's head, and signed by the mi- writer, who undertakes to fhew nisters, calculated by him to pro- “ that the iffuing of bank notes is duce half a million
clear yearly pro- productive of the same consequenfit to the nation. The second is the ces as robbery, as by that means the institution of a national insurance- produce of labour is obtained withoffice, from which a gain is to be out labour, and every man in society derived of two millions and a half. deprived of a part of his property, The third thing which Dr. Tatham or of the fruits of his labour ; " and recommends is, to call in all the that it is not the increase of the plate in the kingdom, above a cer- taxes, but of paper money which tain weight, and to coin it into mo- has produced the present high price ney. By the last-mentioned easy of provisions and commodities of and simple procedure, a sufficient every kind, and the confequent miquantity of gold and silver for the series of the poor, and distretses circulation of currency, and the cur- of the middling classes. Ingenious rency of circulation would, doubt- and subtle as are the author's realess, be immediately secured, and fonings in support of those positions, oftentatious luxury thus prove a we do not imagine that he will sucsubstantial blessing to the country. ceed in obtaining numerous disciWe refer the above propositions to ples: and when we consider the the profound confideration of our alarming projects with which his arpoliticians and statemen.
guments are coupled, and to which Mr. Playfair, in his “ Letter to they are introductory, we add, we Sir William Pulteney, bart. and on hope that he will not. For be prothe Establishment of another public poles, that all promissory notes now Bank in London,” endeavours to in circulation be suppressed; that thew the peculiar claims to public the whole national debt be convertpatronage which an inititution would ed by government into paper curpofless, that thould combine the ad- rency, to be circulated in the room vantages both of land and money as of them; and that such national a capital, and also receive manufac paper should in all cases be made a tured commodities and government legal tender. In a commercial counsecurities as pledges for fums ad. try, especially if governed by an unvauced. With an institution pro- principled and embarratled admifelling to unite these advantages for nistration, such devices would lead the perfect security of the creditor, to inevitable ruin. Mr. Flayfair was, it seems, con The “ Suggestions on the Slave nected ; and to recommend it to Trade, for the Confideration of the general notice appears to have been Legislature of Great Britain, by Sir
Jeremiah Fitzpatrick, knt. M.D.” as well as of clothing and fuel, durappear to have flowed from a well- ing the years 1794 and 1795, ine intentioned mind, but not sufficient- duced the author, both from benely enlarged, properly to discriminate volence and personal curiosity, to between the interests of humanity investigate their condition in various and policy. To this we are to attri- parts of the kingdom.” With this bute the incongruities which his view he visited several parishes himwork discovers. For while he lays felf, and employed an intelligent it down as a first principle “ that no person, in whom he could put per, man, or body of men, whatever, fect confidence, in travelling more have a right to enflave or punish than a year from place to place persons not subject to their laws, to collect information. He was, and more particularly those who likewise, supplied with valuable never gave them offence," and is communications by different clergyan advocate for the gradual abo- men, and other gentlemen. In the lition of colonial flavery, he seems volumes before us we have the reto admit of the neceflity of conti- fult of his enquiries, and of the nuing that murderous traffic in hu- communications transmitted to him, man flesh, which threatens to bring together with many curious inveftidown on our country the severe judg- gations, and judicious suggestions ments of heaven. Hence, a con- and remarks, for which the political siderable part of his treatise is em- economist is greatly indebted to the ployed in pointing out regulations author. Sir Frederick's object is respecting the purchase of llaves in “ not so much to draw conclufions, Africa, and the mode of importing either from facts or arguments, as, them into the West Indies. We by putting the public in pofleffion must entertain very different ideas of such facts as were attainable by than we can do at present of the one individual, to enable them to trade itself, before we can coolly ap- draw their own conclusions." The preciate the merits of the different first volume is divided into two plans for conducting it. What the books, each confifting of three chapauthor has advanced on the subject ters, in which the author treats of of the gradual liberation of the flaves the history of the poor from the in the illands, is more worthy of at- conquest to the reformation ; of tention ; but to be perfectly accept- their history from the reformation able to the true philanthropist, muft to the revolution, with an analysis be separated from the least con- rof the different publications on the nexion with the importation scheme. subject of the poor, and which had The style and language of this work for their object plans and regulaare uncommonly intricate, and fre- tions for their better support ; of quently incorrect.
their history from the revolution to “ The State of the Poor, &c. by the present period; of national eftaSir Frederick Morton Eden, bart.' blishments for the maintenance of in 3 volumes, 4to. is a very im- the poor, the English poor laws, and portant and interesting work, with Mr. Pitt's bill; of the diet, dress, the perusal of which we have been fuel, and habitation of the labour-, highly gratified. “ The difficulties ing clafles ; and of the rise, prowhich the labouring classes expe- gress, and present State of friendly rienced, from the high price of societies, or benefit clubs. The grain, and of provisions in general,' second and third volumes contain
an hundred and eighty-one paro- remarks on the present state of the chial reporti, together with an åp- nation, and the posture of affairs; pendix, composed of twenty-one dif- means for extending the national ferent articles, many of which are of trade, and thereby increasing the diftinguihed importance, and a co- quantity of employment for the pious index.' In this vast collection poor ; reflections on the impolicy of of matter, the antiquarian, the hil- the present corn laws, and expetorian, and the philanthropist will dients for reducing the price of promeet with much that will gratify vision; and motives proper to excite curiosity, and supply topics for in- in the common people a defire of teresting and useful speculation. accumulation. The unequal diftriWe do not, however, uniformly bution of wealth he justly confiders concur with fir Frederick in the to be one of the leading caoses of opinions and observations which he that diminution of the recompence has advanced, and the conclusions of labour, to which the distreffes of which he has drawn froin his enqui- the lower classes are in a great mearies. " That for centuries the con- fure to be ascribed; and among the dition of the labouring class has expedients which he recomends to been in a gradual state of improve- counteract that evil, without affectment," we conceive to be abun- ing internal peace and tranqhillity dantly refuted by his own history, and are, the reduction of the rate of in. the tables which he has collected: terest, an increase of taxes on artiand we think that his estimate of cles of luxury, and an equal land the population of the country, in tax, varying only with the rent, of opposition to that of Dr. Price, be- the real value of land. To excite fore it be admitted, requires stronger in the common people a desire of support than the fatement of accumulation, he proposes fich an George King and the affertions and alteration in the laws of inheritance hypothetical reasonings of Mr. Chal- as may lead to the more equal divimers. But notwithstanding our oc- fion of landed estates; the institucasional dissent from the author, we tion of societies for securing and are fully fenfible of the great gene- improving the favings of the poor; ral merits of 'his labours, and hope and such a gradual change of the that he will persevere in inquiries, poor laws as would destroy the tempby which the interests of his countations to idleness which are fanctry and of humanity may be effen- tioned by the present fyftem. What tially benefited. With respect to Mr. Ingram has advanced on the forethe compofition of his work, it is, in going, and other important subjects, general, “ plain, simple, and perspi- is deserving of respectful attention. cuous.”
The senlible author of " Outlines Mr. Ingram's " Enquiry into the of an Attempt to establish a Plan prefent Condition of the lower for a just and regular Equivalent Clafies, and the Means of improv- for the Labour and Support of the ing it, &c." is the production of an Poor, &c." contributes his endeaenlightened and benevolent mind, vours to meliorate the condition of and offers much useful information that numerous class, by offering two and important hints on the different propositions for the confideration of topics which fall under discuflion. the legislat:ire. The firft is founded le is divided into four fections, cons on the doctrine that all the neceffataining an examination of the con- ries of life bear an accurate propordition of the labouring claffes, with tion to the price of grain ; and re
commends, after it has been ascer- to consult the remarks of this temtained how much wheat, or other perate and able writer, we think grain is necessary for the support of that he will materially change his a labourer's family, the pasling of a ground, before he again calls the law to empower him to demand his attention of parliament to this imwages either in grain or in money. portant and neceffary subject of difThe subject of this proposition is cuffion. by no means new, and is attended Mr. Beltham's " Remarks” on with difficulties which have employ. Mr. Pitt's bill tend, likewise, forci. ed the speculations, and puzzled the bly to point out the injurious conse understandings of our ableft political quences which would follow the economists. We shall leave it to enactment of some of its clauses, their reiterated investigations to de- and to shew that the whole, “ instead cide on its feasibility, and on its of fimplifying a system already too policy. The other proposal of the complex, makes, by engrafting a author is, that the weights of the heap of new upon the existing ttock kingdom thould be reconciled to of old provisions, the entire aggreone standard, by connecting them gate of code of poor laws infinitely with the copper coinage : a measure more operose, confused, and intrithat would at the same time prevent cate than before.” To these rethe labourer from futtaining the marks the well-informed author has losses occasioned by the circulation added a fhort sketch of a plan, of counterfeit copper, and enable which is plain, easy, and intelligihim by legal weights to detect the ble, and adapted to afford far more impofitions of dishoneft tradesmen. effe&tual relief to the poor than the We can perceive no serious objec- regulations of the minister, and at tion to the latter plan.
far less expence to the public. Mr. Wood, in his “ Letter to Sir The principal features of that plan William Pulteney, bart. containing are, the abolition of the law of some Observations on the Bill for settlements; the establishment of the better Support and Maintenance parochial funds; the total exempof the Poor, presented to the House tion of the labouring poor from of Commons by the right honour- the burthen of parochial taxes, able William Pitt," proves, in the or poor rates; the investment of the most convincing manner, that the magistrates of each county, in cerregulations proposed by the premier tain circumstances, and under prowould not only fail of remedying the per limitations, with a power to fix mischiefs universally acknowledged the minimum, as in many cases to exist under the present intricate they are now authorised to fix the syfteni, but afford scope for the maximum of the price or value of exercise of frauds and abuses of the labour; the appointment of premoft pernicious tendency. He miums for the encouragement of inshews, likewise, that the burthen duftry, &c. and the erection of cotwhich Mr. Pitt's bill would entail tages, with gardens, &c. to be let upon the public, instead of being a at very low rents, by way of endefireable commutation for the pre- couragement to the most meritorious fent poor rates, would be unspeak among the poor ; and the relief of ably more oppressive and intoler- persons in distress, notwithstanding able. If the minister be serious in they may be pofsessed of a little prohis intention to introduce a new sy- perty, real or perfonal. Such regustem of poor laws, and thall deign lations, were they adopted, would
ftrike at the root of fome of the of Durham; a village thop at most vexatious, cruel, and impolitic Mongewell, in Oxfordihire, lo reprovifions of our present poor laws. gulated as to prevent the poor from
Mr. Cowe's “religious and phil- running in debt, and to save them anthropic Tracts” are deserving of above twenty per cent. in the purwarm commendation, for the hu- chase of neceilaries; an incorporated mane benevolent spirit which they house of industry for two united breathe, and the judicious valuable hundreds in Norfolk ; a spinning advice which they enforce. These school at Oakham, in the county tracts are three in number. The of Rutland; the introduction of first is a plain and excellent dif- manufactures into the house of corcourse delivered by the author to the rection at Dorchester ; the provision members of the friendly societies at for supplying the poor with fuel inSunbury, in Middlesex, of which serted in the inclosure bill for Little place he is the respectable and wor- Dunham, in Norfolk; and the mode ihy vicar. The second contains an of parochial relief adopted in the essay on the state of the poor, point- Hundred of Stoke, in Buckinghaming out, under several particulars, shire. Prefixed to the report is a the principal causes of their distress, defence of the poor against the and the most practicable means of charges of idleness, drunkenness, &c. removing them. To the serious and too commonly alleged againft them candid confideration of all well- by the unfeeling and uncharitable, withers to the improvement and hap- which does credit to the head and pinefs of the lower ranks, do we heart of the composer. recommend the account which Mr. During the present year, Count Cowe has subjoined, of the effects Rumford has published two adproduced by the friendly societies at ditional numbers of his valuable Sunbury, from 1773 to the present and interesting, “ Experimental Efyear. The third tract in this col- says, political, economical, and lection contiits of rules for forming philofophical." The first of these, and managing friendly societies with which is the sixth in the general a view to facilitate their general esta- order of their appearance, treats of blishment; than which we have not the management of fire, and the met with any better adapted to pro- economy of fuel. This subjea emmote the honest pride of indepen- ploys five chapters, abounding in dence, and the spirit of induttry and philosophical reasonings, and accueconomy among our labouring poor. rate useful experiments; which are
“ The first Report of the Society fucceeded by descriptions of kitchens for bettering the Condition and erected in various places under the increasing the Comforts of the author's directions, of boilers, ovens, Poor," contains much useful in- and fire places for different purformation, by which the opulent pofes, &c. and an explanation of and benevolent may be initruct- fix illustrative plates. The serenth ed, at no great trouble or ex- essay belongs rather to the head pence, to render essential benefit to of general philosophy, than to this their indigent neighbours. The sub- department of our work; but as jects which furnish the particulars it is a part of the series of treatises of the present report are, a friendly applied to the improvement of dofociety at Castle-Éden, in the county melic economy, we have chosen