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he sent me of her, feveral years af- come and pass a few months in the ter they had been married." summer at St. Petersburg, because

“ It was at this period that he the wished to be personally acresumed his great work on. Soli- quainted with him. His letter to • tude,' which was his favourite the enpress was full of expresperformance, near thirty years af- fions of gratitude ; but he wrote ter he published his first effay. It to M. de Groffe that he feared be is in four volumes; the two firft could not undertake the journey of which appeared in 1784, and without endangering his health, the two last in 1786. There is a though if her majefty continued to translation of it, or rather of part defire it, he would undertake it

. of it, in French, in one small vo- The empress dispensed with it in lume 8vo."

the most gracious mamer by writ“ His work upon Solitude was ing to him, that she did not with received with great éclat, not only his health should suffer op acin Germany, but wherever German count of the pleasure le thould is read, and procured him a corre- ' experience from the journey.' This fpondence which gratified him ex- correspondence lafted fix years, till tremely; I mean that of the em- the commencement of 1791, when press of Russia, to whom the book the empress dropped it all at once. had been sent without his know. The ordinary subjects of their letledge: it was not indeed to be ex- ters were politics, literature, and pected that he should think of of philosophy. All those of the fering to such a sovereign a work • empress contain the most elevatwhich so well paints the happiness ‘ed sentiments, and every mark of to be enjoyed in retirement from an amiable mind.' Phyficwas never the world. That princess, how- once mentioned ; but she often said ever, was so well pleased with it, to him, and seemed to with him to that the determined herself to fend say in public, that her health her thanks to the author. The was good, and did not coft her 26th of January 1780, a courier thirty fols a year. She, however, from M. de Grosse, envoy from Ruf- caused it be proposed to him, withlia to Hamburgh, brought M. Zim- out appearing in it herself, to estamerman a small box containing a blith himself at St. Petersburg as - ring set with diamonds of extraor- her first phyfician ; and he was ofdinary size and beauty, with a gold- fered a falary of 10.000 roubles. en medal, bearing on fide the fi- When he had refused the offer, the gure of the empress, and on the desired him to procure young phy. other the happy reform of the Ruf- ficians and surgeons for her armics, fian monarchy. That princess had and for those towns of the empire also added a note in her own hand- that were in want of them : fevewriting, containing these remark- ral of those he tent have become able words: · To M. Zimmerman, rich and happy; and, in gratitude

Counsellor of State, and Phyl- for the service he had rendered the *cian of his Britannic Majesty, to late, the fent to him the cross of * thank him for the excellent pre- the order of Wladomir ; another 'cepts he has given mankind in time the sent him two elegant • his book upon Solitude.' This note golden medals, stuck in honour of was accompanied by a letter from M. Morloff, upon account of the M. de Groffe, who propofed to plague 'at Moscow, and the destruchim, by desire of the empreis, to tion of the Turkish fleet.


* In the journey which Zim and town to which he had devoted merman made to Berlin he had a himself, as well as of all the north long audience with the king at of Europe." Potzdam; of which audience he It was precisely at this epoch narrated the principal circumstances that a train of troubles began which to a friend, who seems to have com- had two different canses, and which municated his letter to fome incon embittered the latter years of this fiderate person, and it was publish- excellent man's life. ed mutilated and falfified, without “ His letter upon his presentathe knowledge of the author; who, tion to the king in 1771 had been however, had it printed again after criticised with the greatest severity, his journey to Potzdam iņ 1786." and the gentleman who caused it

« M. Zimmerman arrived at to be printed without the author's Potzdam on the 230 June, and re consent certainly did wrong. His mained there till the 11th July ; account of his journey in 1786, he immediately perceived that there which it was natural enough to were no hopes of restoring the king; publish, but which contained seveand he took care not to fatigue an ral episodes, and among them one irritable and weakened body by upon the Irreligion of the People active remedies, that would have of Berlin, which irritated, or fervaugmented its weakness, and occa ed as a pretext to persons who fioned violent symptoms, without wished to be irritated, was still producing any possible good effect. more severely scrutinized. Fickle Upon his return to Hanover he gave minds are difplea-ed when they can a history of his journey, which is only smile and fhut the book. This replete with interesting facts, and is was a cause of trouble to him ; but still read with pleasure. Of this did not prevent him from employperformance there are two French ing himself upon other works, of trandations."

which the same hero was the ob“ In 1788, when the king of ject. He forgot that to write the England was ill, the Hanoverian history of a king during the life of miniftry sent him to Holland, that his cotemporaries is to write it too he might be nearer London, in case foon, and that those only who nehis presence should become necef ver knew, are permitted to praite sary there. He remained at the him." Hague ten days, and did not leave. « The second cause of his vexait till all danger was over. To be tions at this time was his love for invited by one king who knew religion, humanity, and good ormankind so well; to be sent by a der; and it was this that inflicted mainiftry, who for twenty years had the mortal stroke." witnessed his ability, into Hand, [Dr. Tiffot, in this part of his to be there ready to succour another work, details Dr. Zimmerman's king attended by physicians of the account of the secret order of the first reputation, afforded new and Illuminated : a fect, the object of Atriking teftimonies to his reputa- which, he had persuaded himselt, tion as a medical man ; flattered was to destroy the Christian religihim extremely, and made him feel on, and to overthrow every throne that delightful sensation which is and every government.] naturally consequent on public “ A correspondence foon com esteem. He was beloved, and en- menced between M. Zimmerman joyed the confidence of the prince and a great number of persons who


faw and thought as he did; but, ploy the measures which he (M. although this correspondence gave Zimmerman) had recommended ; him infinite satisfaction, it never and farther, that in order to extend theless impaired his force.

their influence the affair should be Among these correspondents represented to the dict of Ratisbon he met with one of whom he no as an object which demanded the more thought while writing the most serious deliberation." • Memoirs of Frederic,' than he “ M. Zimmerman was, without had thought of the empress of Ruf- doubt, much flattered by receiving fia when writing his treatise on marks of approbation from fo en• Solitude,' In 1791 he received lightened a judge; but this cirsome very pretling letters from M. cumstance conftituted but a small Huffman, a man of great learning, portion of the pleasure wlich he and professor of eloquence at Vic experienced from the emperor's letenna, who appeared very zealous ter. To form a juft idea of this for the cause of good order, pro- pleasure, it is neceflary to imagine profed establishing a journal for its that we behold a man very indusdefence, and requested directions, triously and almost solely employed advice, and materials. M. Zim- for several years past, in discovermerman was very punctual in an- ing the sources, exposing the dayswering him; and in several letters ger, and endeavouriug to point out hinted at means to be employed by expedients to prevent the dreadful the princes for suppreiling these comequences of a scourge fallen on new revolutionists. In a short time the earth, of which he had already M. Hoffman informed him that the seen millions of victims, and the emperor (Leopold II.) patronised ravages of which extended with his journal, and was determined to astonishing rapidity; who bad not exert his utmost authority to crush till then had the leatt success, who the league. Thus informed of the had made a multitude of enemies sentiments of this prince, M. Zim- by his courage and perseverance, merman thought it proper to ad but who at laft fees the greateft dress to him a nemorial, in which monarch in Europe adopt his ideas, he explained all he knew of the thank him for his zeal, approve his principles of the sect, and the dan measures, and put his own hand to ger of it, with the best methods of the execution of the work. But preventing its fatal consequences. atter having participated with M. This memorial was presented the Zimmerman in his gratification, iet beginning of February, and on the

us conceive what he felt when, a 28th he received a letter in which few days after, he was informed of the emperor testified his approba- the unexpected death of the em. tion of the work, and presented peria accompanied with very myfhim with a mark of his gratitude: terious circumstances. It is ealy to it was a box set in diamonds, with imagine what a severe stroke this his cypher. A letter from the per- ludden death of his patron must son whom he had employed to pre- have inflicted upon his fufceptible sent his work, and with whom the mind. emperor had conversed concerning “ M. Hoffman, having loft his it, entered into very minute details protector, was persecuted by his relative to the intentions of that enemies, who compelled him to prince, and declared that Leopold abandon his journal, the firtt work was resolved immediately to em- of the kind that had opposed the


torrent: they succeeded in depriv, having publickly insulted him, uning him of his professorship, and less he could prove that the anony. obliged him to quit Vienna ; but mous pamphlet came from him, they could not prevent his conti- though his name was not affixed." nuing to write with the same cou, Deeply impreiled with the rage and zeal.

importance of his caule, Zimmer “ M. Zimmerman foon recover. man gave himself up to labours ed from the dejection into which that rapidly destroyed his health; this event had thrown him, and re pot only in as much as an unremita doubled his activity: he extended ted occupation of the mind hurts it his correspondence; and publithed more than any thing else, but also fresh pamphlets; to some of these because when he was employed in he affixed his name, but thought it any work his manner of living was unnecessary to do fo to all: many changed in a very prejudicial manwere known by the energy of his ner : he rose very early in the thoughts, and the lustre of his style, morning, and wrote a long while the characters of which are equi- before he began visits, and in the valent to a signature with such evening, after having finished the readers as know what style is : but professional business of the day, in, unfortunately these characters are Itead of ealing and diverting his not admitted as evidence before tri- mind in society, he again went to bunals; and M. Zimmerman had a work, and remained at it frequentvery vexatious lawfuit, in confe- ly till a very late honr. His mind quence of pot having remembered was thus in continual action, and that a man may disavow his writ- bis body had not the repose it reings at his pleasure, if he does not quired; he bore up, however, very put his name at full length to his well for several years; and, on the works. In 1792 he inserted in M. 4th October 1794, he wrote me a Hoffman's journal fome_sheets en- letter in which there is the same titled · Baron de Knigge unveiled strength of expression, the fame • as an Illuminate, Democrat, and justness of thought, and the same • Seducer of the People ;' and proy- precision of arrangement, as in ed his affertions by the baron's own those preceding : he there clearly writings.

pointed out the progress of the soAmong the works which he ciety, which became daily more quoted, one was anonymous, which dangerous : • She is mistress of alrendered it very difficult to prove most every press, of every bookthe author : the baron availed him- ‘seller, of every German journal, self of this circumstance to repre- and of all the courts. The causent M. Zimmerman's memoir as a « ses of the disasters of this last camscandalous libel, and commenced "paign are the same as those of the an action for dainages against him. events at Châlons in 1762. This The cause was delayed for a long letter also contained the most lively time, and was not tried till Febru- expressions of his joy at hearing of ary 1795, a period when my friend my cure ; yet there was one fenwas not only too weak to defend it, tence bearing traces of the most but even to intereft himself about profound melancholy, which gave it. It was decided, that he had me the greatest pain : ' I run a certainly proved the baron to be a • risk yet of becoming this year a dangerous man, &c. but that ne- poor emigrant, forced to abandon vertheless he thould apologise for his house with the dear compa1797



. nion of his life, without knowing fits in his carriage; but he fre . where to direct his course or quently fainted on the stairs : il

where to find a bed to die on,' was painful for him to write a preThe invasion of the electorate, the scription : he sometimes complain. facking of Hanover, and the ne ed of a confufion in his head, and ceffity of abandoning it, was cer he at length gave over all business. tainly at that time to be feared, if This was at first taken for an effect the negociation had not saved what of hypochondria, but it was foon per: the armies did not defend: butceived, that his deep melancholy Zimmerman's manner of expresling had destroyed the chain of his ideas. his fears announced the greatest de- What has happened to so many men preffion. I saw therein a mind of gepius, befell him. One ftrong whose springs began to fail, and idea masters every other, and subwhich dared no longer say, as it dues the mind that is no longer able could have justly done, I carry either to drive it away, or to lose

every thing with me.' I neglected sight of it. Preserving all his prenothing in order to raise his spirits, fence of mind, all his perfpicuits, and entreated him to come to me and justress of thought on other with his wife, to a country that fubjects, but no longer defrous of was his own, where he would have occupying himself with them, no remained in the most perfect fecu: longer capable of any bufiness, nor rity, and enjoyed all the sweets of of giving advice, but with pain, he peace and friendthip. He answered bad unceasingly before his eyes the me in December, and one part of enemy plundering his house, as his letter resembled thofe of other Pafcal always saw a globe of fire times; but melancholy was still near him, Bonnet his friend robbing more strongly inarked, and the ill- him, and Spinello the devil opposite ness of his wife, which he unfor- to him. In February he commenced tunately thought more serious than tasing medicines, which were eiit really was, evidently opprefled ther prescribed by himself or by him: he had been obliged to take the physicians whom he consulted : three days to ivrite me details which at the beginning of March he deat another time would not have oc- fired my advice; but he was no cupied bim an hour, and he con- longer able himself to describe his difcluded his letter with, • I conjure order, and his wife wrote me the acyou, perhaps for the last time, &c.' count of it. I answered her immediThe idea that he thould write no ately; but of what avail can be the more to his friend (and unfortu- directions of an abfent physician in nately the event justified him), the a disorder wbofe progress is rapid, difficulty of writing a few pages, when there muft neceffarily be an the still fixed idea of being forced interim of near a month between to leave Hanover, although the the advice asked, and the directions

face of affairs bad entirely chang. received ? His health decayed fo ed; all, all indicated the lots I was fast, that M. Wichman, who at: about to sustain.

tended him, thought a journey and “ From the month of November change of air would now be the he had loft his fleep, his appetite, beft remedy. Eutin, a place in the his strengtlı, and became ienfibly dutchy of Holstein, was fixed uport thinner; and this state of decline for his refidence. In going through continued to increase. In January Luneburgh on his way he was still able to make a few vi Lenin, one of the physicians in

ibither, dl.


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