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that he thought the motion perfect- courage to rise up in his place and ly regular, and that it ought to be defend his own judgment. He said granted.

not a word. “ Judge Afton then began to re “ If he was ambitious of being cant. He said, that he was always thought a Mæcenas, whieh was glad to be convinced of a mitiake, supposed, that may be pretended and happy in having an early op- to be fome excuse for his judgment portunity of acknowledging it, that on this question in the court of from what his brother Yates and King's-bench, but cannot apologize fir Fletcher Norton had said, he for abandoning his own character faw clearly that his first opinion in the house of lords. had been erroneous, and that he “ By his patronage of fir John agreed the motion ought to be Dalrymple, who compiled. The granted.

• Memoirs of Great Britain, al. “Lord Mansfield then, in great ready mentioned in the preceding .confusion, faid, that he should chapter ; and of Mr. Lind, who • take time to consider of it.' To wrote some tracts entitled, ' Letters this fir Flether Norton replied, that, « on Poland,' in which the late king as two of the three judges were of of Pruflia is treated with great ai: the fame opinion, the notion must perity; and tome tracts against Abe granted; but that, for his part, merica, during the American war, if bis lordship wanted any time to in support of the ministry; and of consider, whether, when a subject some other writers of the fare applied to the court of King's- principles; perhaps he flattered bench for redress, he was or was himself with the hopes of being not to be referred to a foreign mi- esteemed an encourager of literary nister, or to an attorney-general, men. But avarice was his ruling he had no objection to allowing paflion. He used to say, those who him all the time he wanted. purchased estates, preferred their

“ Thus wickedness and folly principal but received no intereli ; vere defeated, and the unhappy those who bought in the funds, had foreign minister, in spite of the interest but no principal. He laid law of nations, was obliged to out his money in mortgages, and comply with the law of nature, and good securities, by which he had to provide for his child."

both principal and intereft. s'a'be conduct of lord Mans “ His lordthip was also ambitifield on the question concerning qus of being thought a statesman. literary property is well known. Upon one occafion only he thoue as He gave a judgment in the court of a politician: this was his attack on King's-beach, by which the Lon- the Suspending and Difpenting Predon booksellers were induced to rogative in the Year, which was unbelieve they had a permanent pro- doubtedly made with great ability, perty in what they bought; and but the case may be laid to have when the matter came to be argued been more a matter of jurispruin the house of lords, upon an ap- dence than politics, and although peal, and he was firmly attacked he gave to his eloquence all the adby lord Thurlow, (then attorner- vantages he had acquired by a long general, and counsel for the appel- exercise, yet the merit at the attack Tant), and all his doctrine repro- is letlened, when it is recoilected bated by lord Camden, he had not that lord Camden had maintained

the

the necessity of a fufpending power upon the Boston Port Bill, in reply in a case of imminent danger of fa. to lord Dartmouth, at that time le mine, which was the fact, and that cretary of state for the colonies. lord Mapstield warmly embraced His lordfhip faid, the sword was this opportunity of upholding a true drawn, and the scabbard thrown aconftitutional doctrine, to gratify way. We had palled the Rubicon;' his envy and hatred of lord Cam alluding to Cæsar's march to Rome. den. His motive was founded in This was not less a prophetic and perfonal rancour, not in conftituti dreadful denunciation to the interonal. All those who are acquaint ests of Great Britain, than the in: ed with the hiftory of the time will scription on the bridge over the not hesitate to admit this distinc Rubicon was to the fate of Cæsar, tion. But the traớt which was and the liberties of Rome. published, called A Speech a “ Montesquiea, in considering įgainst the Sarpending and Difpenf- the causes of the grandeur and de‘ing Prerogative,' and contained all. clension of the Romans, obferves, that lord Mansfield advanced in bis that policy had not permitted arspeech upon this subject in the houfe • mies to be itationed near Rome, for of lords, was not written by his lord this reason considerable forces were thip, although generally believed to "kept in Cisalpine Gaul; but to fehave been his production, nor was cure the city of Rome against those he privy to the writing or pub troops, the celebrated Senatus Con.' lication. The pamphlet was writ fultum was made, ftill to be seen enten by lord Temple, and lord Lyt- graven on the way from Rimini to telton, and a gentleman who was Cesena; by which they devoted to present at the debate, and states in the infernal gods, and declared to the form of one speecb all the ar beguilty of facrilege and parricide, guments on that lide. However, those who thould with a legion, lord Mansfield's motives may be with an army, or with a cohort; excused, if the feverity of his attack 'pass the Rubicon.' Montanus gires makes ministers more afliduous in the inscription at length, which is their duty, for they had information stronger than Montesquieu ftates, of the approaching danger, and did and lays that Aldus Manutius, in not attend to it; if they had, fuch the year 1505;' in his way froni attention would have prevented the Venice to Rome, faw this infcrip. neceflity of reforcing to fo violent a tion, and carefully tranfcribed it. Temedy.

When Cæfar, in his march for. “ Of his lordfhip's political opi- Rome, had advanced to the Rubinions and conduct, it would have con he paused a few moments 'at been happy for his country if they this infcription, but his ambition had been founded in those just prin- prevailing, be passed over the bridge ciples of all government, which and then exclairudd, I the lot is make the honour of the state and cait, let the gods do the rest!'. the interests of the people perfectly “ Whoever koows lord Manz. the same. His political ideas were field's influence in the British cati. like those of lord Bute; they were net, will say this was the die of Acontracted, fplenétic, and tyranni. Derica." cal. No better proof need be given *** In the progrets of the Amerithan his memorable apottrophe in' can war, lord and general Howe, the house of lords, in the year 2774, bad hot the fucceís' which his lord

6

fhip expected, and he could not field faid, "the Howes had no help expresling his disappointment heads; to which fir

Clayat dinner at one of the Surrey af- ton neatly replied, then what fizes; the subject of conversation will become of the heads of those being the American war, lord Mans who sent them?'

ANECDOTES of the REIGNIN, SULTAN, and of the RULING CABINET at

the OTTOMAN COURT.

[From CONSTANTINOPLE Ancient and Modern, &c. by JAMES DAL

LAWAY, M. B. F. S. A. late Chaplain and Physician to the British Embaffy to the Porte.]

“A

FEW anecdotes of the ful- and sultan Mahmood, the fons of

tan and the present ruling Abdul-hamid and the only remaincabinet, which I offer as genuine, ing heirs of the empire, are both may not be unacceptable, as vari minors. They experience a genebus causes seem at this jun&ture to rous return for their father's kindconspire, by which the Ottoman ness, and are treated with suitable court may take a more active parton respect. Each has his separate suite thegreat political theatre of Europe. of apartments, and fixty attendants, Sultan Selim III. is the eldest male. amungf whom are thirty elderly descendant of the house of Or- female Naves, with an annual reve. man, who in 1299 established the nue of 6.5000 Iterling. The good Cfth dynasty of the kalifes. At the musulman, who laments the pofiideath of his father Mustafa III. in ble extinction of the imperial fami1775, he was fourteen years old. ly, is comforted by the astrologers, According to the known precedent who have publicly declared, that amongft the Turks, Abdul-hamid, after he has attained to forty years, his uncle, succeeded to the throne; sultan Selim will be blefled with a for they disdain to be governed ei- numerous progeny. ther by a woman or a boy.

“ His countenance is handsome At his accession Abdul hamid and impressive, and his figure good; had reached the age of forty-nine, he is afiable, and poffeffes much and during the fifteen years

' reign speculative genius, is not ill inof his brother Mustafa had emilured formed of the characters and sepaa state imprisonment, which the rate interests of his contemporary jealous policy of the seraglio had princes, and has every inclination long ordained. As a solace of his to reconcile his subjects to the confinement, hecultivated literature superior expediency of European and the arts of peace. His dispofi- maxims, both in politics and war. tion, mild and beneficent, induced But it is dubious if he be capable him to forego the ancient prejudice, of that energetic activity, and that and to superintend the education of personal exertion, which are requirsultan Selim, giving him every li- ed in an absolute prince to re-moberal indulgence. Sultan Mustafa del a people whose opinions are not

He was a

to be changed but by an universal “ Mehmet Melek Pasha, the la:e revolution.

visier, religned in 1794. “ Peter the Great and Charles favourite, in his youth, of Mustafa XII. in their plans of regenerating, III. who gave him his filter in maror conquering the Ruffians, did not riage, and the appellation of Melek, depend solely upon the agency of or the Angel, on account of his finministers for success.

gular beauty; for the Turks usually " The curiofity of Selim respect- take their surname from some pertoning the other nations of Europe orin al excellence or peculiarity. After ginated in frequent convertations having enjoyed some of the most luwith Rachìb Effendi, the present crative governments in the empire historiographer-royal, who was for he returned to Conftantinople, and fome time evvoy at Vienna, after was called to the visirate, at the adthe laft war. Those who have vanced age of ninety years, in 1789. gained his confidence since the He has retired to his palace on the coinmencement of his reign, have Aliatic side of tie Bosporus, and, as consulted that inclination, and im- an extraordinary fact in natural proved every opportunity of extend- hiftory, has had a fon born to him ing his intelligence on those sub- whote legitimacy cannot be invalijects. I have heard it allerted that dated. the young men in the seraglio are “ The present fyftem of govern. now instructed in the French lan ment aims at the fuppreflion of the guage by his command; and his former fole authority of the visier, partiality to French wine is no fe- and has reduced him to a mere cret amongst the well informed. member of the cabinet council. As

“ The first efforts towards im- the sultan takes a more active Diare provement have been applied to than his predeceffor in public af. the army and marine. Forts hare fairs, and listens to more advisers, it been erected on the Bosporus, regi- seems to draw ,to an end. The ments have been trained to Euro- vilier now in otrice is likewite pean discipline, chiefly by French a barmleis old man, so that they officers, and the feet will become may probably foon ' fit ftate-riain a certain degree formidable. tutes only.'

“ When he has leisure to render " The ruling persons of the prehis vast territory, at least in the vi- fent day are, i. Yusuf Agh:1, cinity of his capital, more relem- kiayah, or high-steward to the fula blant of civilized nations, he will tari's mother, who retains a very probably establish a poit, wbich decided influence with him. Yumay facilitate communication be- suf's private life has been marked tween distant provinces. During by uncommon circumstances. He is the last war many places of impor- a native of Candia, and was origitance were taken, or evacuated, nally a writer to a thip, from which weeks before the ministry were in employment he pailed into the serpofleffion of the fact.

vice of Abdullah Patha, beglerbey The only imperial works now of Anatolia, reliding at Kutayali. feen in his dominions are mosques, During ten years he lo ingratiated aqueducts, and fountains ; he may himself with the patha, that he dehereafter turn his attention to great termined to lecure to him his great roads, now barely passable, which wealth in his life-time. Accorda would be as useful moments of ingly he gave him intire poffeffion, his fame.

ordering him to fly to the Porte,

and

and to urge the heaviest complaints "Every spring he leaves Conftanagainst him for his injustice and ill- titople with a few thips, to vift treatment. Meanwhile the patha the Archipelago, to receive the cadied. The capidji bashi was di- pitation tax from the different spatched by the sultan to seize the islands, and to free the feas froin treasure, but found nothing, and pirates, and the Maltese cruiters. Yusuf, from the predicament in The time of his coming is generalwhich he stood, was the last person ly known, fo that the service is litto be suspected. With this wealth tie more than a matter of forin. he lived in splendour at Conftanti. His reception by the sultan, both nople, and frequented the audiences at his departure and return, is a of the visier. He was foon appoint- brilliant ipectacle. He is married ed taraphanà eminy, or mafter of to the only daughter of Abdul-lathe mint, from which he was ad- mid, and is honoured with the privanced to his prefent poft.

vate friendibip of his sovereign. 2. Ratib Effendi has twice “ Ęvery scheme for defending the held the important office of reis ef- coasts of the Black fea by forts and fendi, or secretary of state. He batteries, and for military regularose from a public clerk, pafling tions, is submitted to Cheliby Efthrough all the preliminary grada fendi, who surveys their execution, tions with diftinguithed ability. He if approved.

He was matter of is beyond comparison the best-in- the mathematical school founded formed and most capable minister in 1773 by Ghazi Hassan patha, a in the cabinet.

very celebrated character in the latt " Tchiuseh, kiayah, or deputy to reign. the vifier, is at the head of the fi “This extraordinary person was nance, and planned the new taxes. likewise a Georgian flave, and af

“ The present capodan patha, or terward a Barbary corsair. Having high admiral, called Kuchuk Huf: been taken prisoner by the Spasein, from his dipinutive stature, niards, he patted fix years of larewas a Georgian Nave, and the com- ry at Madrid, from whence he was panion of the faltan in his child- sent to Naples, where he was exhood. From the feraglio he e changed, and returned to Contaomerged to take the command of finople. His reputation for perfothe navy, it may be presumed with- nal courage procured him the comout much previous arguaintance mand of a galley, and afterward of with maritime affairs. But his ad a frigate. At the unfortunate batministration has been very benefi- tle of Cheshme he had a fhip of cial; for he has raised the marine the line under Jaffer, capudan from the quiserable fute it was left patha, who upon his disgrace died in at the conclution of the Ruffian of chagrin, and was succeeded by war, to reípectability. The new Hafian. Thips are built under ihe inípection “ He was extremely whimfical, of European surveyors, and French and kept a lion's wbelp always on nantical terms hai been adorned. his fota, which he had trained up At the begivning of the present to follow him, but which, having century, the Turkish teet consisted killed one of the domestics, was alof 32 ibips of the line, 34 galleys, terwards chained. He became viand fome brigantines; they can fier, and diedat the age now send to iea 14 tirit dies, 6 tri- ferenig, in the camp against the gates, and 50 sloops of war, Rudians, not without suspicion of

of more than

pollon,

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