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prison. So singular was his bravery, Another Hassan pasha who bated and so frequent his successes, that he him, becoming visier, ordered him aisumed the name of Ghazi, the vic- to be beheaded upon the charge of torious. Abdul hamid was fearful, betraying Giurgevow, the first and considered the safety of the em- Turkish fortress upon the Danube, pire endangered by his absence from to the Germans. He died a milConstantinople.

fulman. Abdul hamid, when in“Of his prevailing influence the formed of the last-mentioned cirfollowing relation is a proof, and cumstances, was so far convinced gives traits of secret machinations of his innocence, that in a few practifed in the feraglio.

months the vindictive visier shared “ One of his slaves, named Yu- the same fate. suf, had to recommended himself “ The officers of the seraglio are by superior talents, that he gave very numerous. The killar-agba, him liberty, and promotion to the or chief of the black cuiuchs, harmost considerable offices. At the ing the arrangement of the female time Yusuf returned from his go- department, is most familiar with vernment of the Morea, to take up- the sultan, and is a powerful friend, on him the office of visier, Mavro or enemy, to the ministers of ftate. yeni, a Greek of a noble family, 6 Between the officers of the sea was the drogoman, or interpreter, raglio and those who compose the to his patron Hallan. Petraki, an- divan, there subfifts a perpetual riother Greek, was master of the valry, and if the emperor be eitlier mint, and imperial banker, and very active or indolent in public had amassed seven millions of business, there is ample cause for piastres.

their jealouty. Those with whom * This man being ambitious of he is constantly converfint, and bebecoming prince of Wallachia, he fore whom he relaxes intocolloquial three times procured the appoint- freedom, muft neceffarily obtain fement of Mavro-yeni to that high cret influence enough to bias him station, who had the interest of in matters of importance, if he Haffan and the visier to be super- wishes otlrers than his oftenfible feded. But they, impatient of the counsellors, or is determined by disappointment, represented to Ab- first representations without farther dul-hamid, that the people de. deliberation. manded the life of Petraki in a « The ministers are admitted to 'tonement of his peculation, who an audience with the fulfan with timidly consented to his execution, the profoundeft ceremony. Even and he was instantly imprisoned. in the presence of the mild AbdulOn the very day of the high cere- hamid the bold Hassan was overmony of Mavro-yeni's inveftiture, powered with awe, and the lioa he was led to the gate of the fera- seemed to be transformed into a glio to kiss his stirrop, and fue for lamb. One of the present ministry, pardon. At that instant the exe a man of great vivacity, is said to cutioner truck off his head, and, compose his spirits with a pill of Mavro-yeni had the fatisfaction of opiuin before he approaches the seeing his tival dead at his feet, throne."



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PARTICULARS relative to the Religion, ECONOMY, CLASSES, Trio

BUNALS, CustomS, ARTS, LITERATURE, and Science of the

[Extracted from Sir George STAUNTON's authentic ACCOUNT of an En

B.Assy from the King of GREAT BRITAIN to the EMPEROR of CAINA.}


F those circular and lofty e- could account for it no otherwise

difices, by Europeans term- than by fuppofing it to have been a ed yagodas, there are several kinds, trick of the Devil to mortify the and dedicated to several uses in Chi- Jesuits. One of them observes, na; but none to religious worship: that the likeness is so strong beThe temples which are consecrated tween the apparent worfhip of mato fuch a purpose differ little in 'ny of the priests of Fo, and that height from common dwelling hou- which is exhibited in churches of ses, as in the instance of the Em- the Roman faith, that a Chinese ballador's momentary residence near conveyed into one of the latter, Tong-choo-foo. The presence of fo- might imagine the votaries he saw reigners there did not prevent the were then adoring the deities of his usual aMuence of devotees. The own country. On the altar of a Chinese interpreter of the Embally, Chinese temple, behind a fcreen, is who was a most zealous Christian frequently a representation which of the Roman Catholic perfiiafon, might answer for that of the Virand himself a priest of that com- gin Mary, in the person of Shinmos, munion, faw, with regret, the Eng- or the facred mother, fitting in an lish curiously examining the images alcove with a child in her arms, or attending to the ceremonies of and rays proceeding from a circle, the religion of Fo, left they thould which are called a glory, round her perceive the resemblance between its head, with tapers burning constant exterior forms and those of his own ly before her. The long course church. Such resemblance had been, gowns of the Ho-thaungs, or priests indced, already thought so striking, of Fo, bound with cords round the that some of the millionaries conjec- wait, would almost equally suit the tured that the Chinese had formerly friars of the order of St. Francis. received a glimpse of Christianity The former live, like the latter, in from the Nettorians, by the way of a state of celibacy, reside in monaTartary : others that Saint Thoinas steries together, and impofe, occathe apostle had been amongst fonally, upon themselves voluntary them; but the millionary Premare penance, and rigorous abstinence.

• The

“ The temples of Fo abound to marry, or go a journey, or conwith more images than are found clude a bargain, or change situation, in most Christian churches, and or for any other material event in Iome that bear a greater analogy life, it is neceffary first to consult to the ancient than to the present the superintendant deity. This is worship of the Romans. One ti- performed by various methods. gure, representing a female, was Some place a parcti of consecrated thought to be something similar to sticks, differently marked and numLucina, and is particularly addrefl- bered, which the consultant, kneeled by unmarried women wanting ing before the altar, shakes in a husbands, and married women hollow bamboo, until one of them wanting children. The doctrine of falls on the ground; its mark is exFo, admitting of a subordinate dei- amined, and referred to a correty particularly propitious to every fpondent mark in a book which the with which can be formed in the priest holds open, and sometimes human mind, would scarcely fail to even it is written upon a theet of spread among thote claffes of the paper patted upon the infide of the people who are not satisfied with temple. Polygonal pieces of wood their prospects, as resulting from are by others thrown into the air. the natural causes of events. Its Each side has its particular mark; progress is not obstructed by any the side that is uppermost when nieatures of the government of the fallen on the floor, is in like mancountry, which does not interfere ner referred to its correspondent with mere opinions. It prohibits mark in the book or sheet of fate. no belief which is not supposed to If the first throw be favourable, the affect the tranquillity of society. person who made it proftrates him

66 There is in China no state re felf in gratitude, and undertakes ligion. None is paid, preferred, or afterwards, with confidence, the encouraged by it. The Emperor is business in agitation. But if the of one faith ; many of the manda- throw should be adverse, he tries a rines of another; and the majority second time, and the third throw of the common people of a third, determines, at any rate, the que : which is that of Fo. This last tion. In other respects the people class, the least capable, from igno- of the present day seem to pay litrance, of explaining the phenome- tle attention to their priests. The na of nature, and the most exposed temples are, however, always open to wants which it cannot fupply bý for such as choose to consult the ordinary means, is willing to recur decrees of heaven. They return to the supposition of extraordinary thanks when the oracle proves propowers, which may operate the ef- pitious to their wishes." Yet they fects it cannot explain, and grant oftener cast lots, to know the issue the requests which it cannot other of a projected enterprize, than supwise obtain.

plicate for its being favourable; “ No people are, in fact, more and their worship confifts more in fuperftitious than the common Chi. thankıgiving than in prayer, nese. Befide the habitual offices “ Few Chinese are seldom said of devotion on the part of the to carry the objects, to be obtained priests and females, the temples are by their devotion, beyond the beneparticularly frequented by the dif- fits of this life. Yet the religion ciples of Fo, previously to any un of Fo profetles the doctrine of the dertaking of importance; whether tranimigration of fouls, and pro


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mises happiness to the people on in the beak of an eagle, to express conditions, which were, no doubt, the devouring effects of thunder, originally intended to consist in the as his wings do its swiftness. With performance of moral duties; but one hand he grasps a thunderboli, in lieu of which are too frequently and in the other is held a truncheon substituted thole of contributions for ftriking several kettle-drums towards the erection or repair of with which he is surrounded. The temples, the maintenance of priests, talons of an eagle are sometimes and a strict attention to particular represented as fixed upon the axis observances. The neglect of these of a wheel, upon which, with aided is announced as punishable by the velocity, he rolls among the clouds. fouls of the defaulters palling into In the original from whence this the bodies of the meanett animals, defcription is taken, the dreadful in whom the lufferings are to be effects of this terrific spirit beneath proportioned to the transgreflions the clouds are pointed out by the committed in the human form."

appearance of aninals struck dead, " The temples of Pekin are not and lying profirate on the ground, equal to its palaces. The religion buildings overturned, and trees of the Emperor is new in China, torn up by the roots." and its vorinip is performed with • No legal tax is imposed in most magnificence in Tartary. The China ou the score of religion. Cemandarines, the min of letters, remonies are ordained by it, in the from whom are selected the magic performance of which some time is strates who govern the empire, and neceffarily consumed, and facrifices possess the upper ranks of life, ve are required, which occasion exnerate rather than they adore Con- pence, on the new and full moon; fucius; and meet to honour and re and in (pring and autumn; and lebrare his memory in halls of a likewise in tlie beginning of the fimple but neat construction. The year. On the latter occasion, parnumerous and lower clanes of the ticularly, much diilipation takes people, are less able than inclined place. Some good alfo is effected. io contribute much towards the e- Acquaintainces renew their fulrection of large and coily edifices pended intercourie; friends offendfor public worship. Their religious ed are reconciled; every thing dates attention is much engaged, buides, as from a new era. The poorest with their householi gouis. Every cottager looks foward and prehouse has its aitar and iis deities. pares, during the preceding months The books of their mythology con- for an interval, however brief, of tain representations of thote who enjoying lite, after having so long prefide over their perions and pro- dragged on lavoriously the burden perties, as well as orer exterior ob- of it." jects likely to afet them. In the " The Chinese have no Sunday, representation of L!i-jin, or ipirit nor even fuch a divition as a week. pre hiding over thunder, the violence The temples are, however, open eof that meteor, which nothing is very day for the visits of devotees. supposed capable of withitanding, Perions of that description have, the velocity of the lightning, which from time to time, made grants

, nothing can exceed, and their u- though to no great amount, for the nited etiects, are reprefented by a maintenance of their clergy; but no monstrous ligure, who is involved lands are subject to ecclefiaftical in clouds. His chin is terminated tithes."

It is pro

“ The country about Tong- tal writers. A roller is likewise choo foo, for several miles, is level moved over it by the Chinese. For and fertile. Some of the Englith these operations a platform of hard gentlemen were fupplied with hor- earth and sand is preprred in the ses, to ride about in the neighbour- open air. A machine has been al. hood. The horfeós were itong and ways uted here for winnowing corn, bony. The breed does not seem to exactly fimilar to that which has have been improved by care. Mules been introduced, within this centubear a greater price than common ry, it is faid, in Europe. horses, as sublisting on less food, bably a Chinese invention. and capable of more labour. M:1 "Indian corn and finall millet ny of the horses were spotted as re- formed, in this place, the principal gularly as a leopard. Such were 10 produce of the autumn crop. There common, as to remove the suspicion were few inclosures, and few cattle of any fraud by artificial colouring. to make them necessary. Scarcely The race of those spotted horses is any fields to be seen in pasture. supposed, among other means, to the animals necetiary for tillage, be obtained by crofling thote of or for carriage, and those destined opposite hues. The faddle furni to serve for food, were moftly fed ture differed as much from the in Italls, and fodder collected for neatness of what is made in Eng. them. Beans, and the finer kind land, as the cattle themselves from of straw cut Imall, composed a Arabian courfers. The riders met great proportion of the food for leveral Chinese on horseback, who, hories. The roots* of corn, and on approaching, alighted in civili- coarser ftems, are frequently left to ty to the strangers. This is a mark rot upon the ground for the pur. of respect thewn here always to su- pote of manure. periors, and the custom has been " The houses of the peasants extended to other parts of the East. were scattered about, instead of beThe Dutch governor and counsel- ing united into villages. The cotlors of the Indies exact, in imita- tages seened to be clean and comtion, that kind of homage from all fortable: they were without fences, persons resident in Batavia. It ap- gates, or other apparent precaution peared indeed, from several instan- against wild beasts or thieves. Robces, in Java, Sumatra, and Cochin bery is faid to happen feldom, tho china, that China gives the ton to not punithed by death, unless agthe countries bordering on the gravated by the commillion of tome Chinese feas. The distinction of violent assault. The wives at the yellow colour, for example, by the pealantry are of material assistance Emperor, is affected by every love. to their families, in addition to the reign in the eastern part of Asia. rearing of their children, and the

« The mixture of eastern and care of their domestic concerns; for western culton s, is to be seen fome- they carry on most of the trades times in China. Thus in the neigh- which can be exercised within bourhood of Tong-choo foo, ihe doors. Not only they rear filkseason of the harvest gave occasion worms, and spin the cotton, which to obferve, that the corn is fome. Jatt is in general ve for both sexes times thrashed with the common of the people ; but the women are fuil of Europe, and funietimes almost the role weavers throughout pressed out by cattle treading on the empire. Yet few of them fail the Inezi, as is described by Orien. to injure their healths, or at least

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