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ftill more backward than the others. is not impossible, that it may b: Amputation, in cases of con pound owing partly to the infertion of the fracture and gangrene, is utterly variolous matter to near the leat unknown. Death is the speedy of the optic nerve, to which the consequence of such accidents. inflammation, it occa nons, may ex Deformed persons, no doubt, there tend. are in China ; but they must be “ No male physician is allowed very few in number, or live much to attend a pregnant woman, and retired; for no such happened to still lefs to practise midwifery ; in fall in the way of the embasly, the indelicacy of which, both sexes through the whole of its reute, feem to agree in China. There from the northern lo the southern are books written on that art for extremity of China.

the use of female practitioners, The mortality of the small with drawings of the ftate and popox, when of the co:fluent kind, fition of the infant at different pejoined to the observation that it riods of gestation; together with 3 attacked, once only, the same per- variety of directions and prescripfon, induced the Chinese to expose tions for every suppoted case that young persons to its infection, may take place : the whole mixed when it happened to be mild, with a number of superstitious obThe success of this method, led at servances. length to the practice of inocula “ Many practitioners of phyfic tion amongst them. The annals of take the advantage, as elsewhere, China firii mention it, at a time of the obscurity in which that art anfirering to the beginning of the is involved, and of the ignorance tenth century of the Christian era. and credulity of the people, to The general method of Chinese gain money by the sale of noftrums inoculation, is the following: and secrets of their own. They when the disease breaks out in distribute hand bills, setting forth any district, the physicians of the the efficacy of their medicines, place carefully collect a quantity with attefied cures annexed to of ripe matter from pustules of the them. But it was reserved for the proper fort; which being dried, fect of Taotle, or difciples of Lacand pulverized, is closely shut up koun, already mentioned, to arroin a porcelain jar, so as to exclude gate boldly to themfelves, the polfrom it the atmoipheric air; and letion of a medical secret, not to in this manner it will retain its • die.' To those who had all the properties for many years. When enjoyments of this life, there rethe patient has been duly prepared maincd, unaccomplished, no other by medicines, generally of an ape- wish than that of remaining for sient kind, and stri@tly dieted for a ever in it. And accordingly seve1hort time, a lucky day is chosen ral sovereigns of China have been to iprinkle a little of the variolous known to cherith the idea of the powder upon a lmall piece of fine polubility of such a medicine. cotton wool, and to insert it into They had put themselves, in full the nostrils of the patient. If health, under the care of those reblindness, or fore eyes, be more ligious empirics, and took large. frequent in China than elsewhere,' draughts of the boasted beverage wbich the gentlemen of the em- of immortality. The composition baly were not able to ascertain, it did not consiit.of merely harmleis

even a nanje.

ingredients; but, probably, of such science. For some there is not extracts and proportions of the

The Chinese books poppy, and of other substances and are full of the particular procefies liquors, as occafioning a temporary and methods, by which a variety exaltation of the imagination, pafl- of effects are produced in chemical ed for an indication of its vivifying and mechanical arts; and much effects. Thus encouraged, they might probably be gained from the had recourse to frequent repetitions perasal of them, by perfons versed of the dose, which brought on at the fame tine, in the language quickly languor and debility of of the defcribers, and acquainted fpirits; and the deluded patients with the subject of the description. often became vi&tims to deceit and As soon as the product of any art or folly, in the flower of their age. manufacture has appeared to an

« There are in China no pro swer the general purpose for which fessors of the sciences connected it was intended, it feidom happens with medicine. The human body that the Chinese discoverer is ei. is never, unlefs privately, dil ther impelled by his curiofity, or fected there. Books, inded with enabled by his opulence, to endeadrawings of its internal firucture; vour to make any further progress, are sometimes published; but tht-se either towards fuperior elegance, or are extremely imperfect, and con ornament, or even increased utility. sulted, perhaps, oftener to find out ?tense of metals, for the common the name of the spirit under whole purposes of life, has made the Chiprotection each particular part is nete search for them in the bowels placed, than for observing its form of the earth, where they have and situation.

found all those that are deemed « It is a matter of doubt, whe- perfect, except platinta. , Perhaps ther natural history, natural philo- they have not the knowledge, or sophy, or chemistry, be, as sciences; means of using the cheapest and much more improved than anato fhorteft method of separating the my in China. There are several precious metals from the substances treatises, indeed, on particular sub-amongst which they are found; jects in each. The Chinese like ñor of reducing the ore of others wife poffefs a very voluminous en into their respective metals; but cyclopedia, containing many facts they perfectly fucceed in obtaining and observations relative to them; them, without alloy, whenever but from the few researches which their object iš to do so ; and in the gentlemen of the embafly had making fuch mixtures of them as leisure or opportunity to make, , produce the results they, desire. during their short visit to the court The mines which are faid to be in try, they perceived no traces of any China, containing gold, a metal general system or doctrine by which efteemed there more precious from separate facts or observations were its rarity than its use, are feldom connected and compared, or the permitted to be worked; but finall common properties of bodies afcer grains of it are collected in the protained by experiment; or where vince of Yunnan and Se-chuen, kindred arts were conducted on fi among the land in the beds of the milar views ; or rules framed, or rivers and torrents which carry it deductions drawn from analogy, or down along with them as they deprinciples laid down to constitute a scend from the mountains. It is 17974



pale, soft, and ductile. A few and no lead or arsenic, fo common mandarines, and many women' of in the calamine of Europe ; and rank, wear bracelets of this metal which extraneous substances conround the wrist, not more for orna. tribute to tarnith the compofitions ment, than from a notion that they made of it, and prevent them from preserve the wearer from a variety taking so fine a polith as the peof diseases. The Chinese artists tung of the Chinese. Doctor Gil. beat it into leaf, for gumming it lan was alio informed at Canton, upon paper to burn in their tri- that the artists, in making their pods, and for gilding the statues of pe-tung, reduce the copper into as iheir deities. Thc lilk and velvet thin feets or laminæ as poflible, weavers use it in their tissues and which they make red hot, and inembroideries. Trinkets are also crease the fire to such a pitch, as made of it at Canton, which the to foften, in some degree, the laChinese do not wear; but which minæ, and to render then ready are sold in Europe as Eastern or- almost to flow. in this state they paments. Beside the use of silver are fuspended over the vapour of as a medium of payment for other their purest tu-te-nag, or zinc, goods, when it paites according to placed in a fubliming verlel over its weight, it is likewife drawn in- a brisk fire. The vapour thus peto threads, like gold, to be used in netrates the heated laminæ of the the filk and cotton manufactures. copper, so as to remain fixed with For bell metal, they use, with cop- it, and not to be easily diffipated per, a greater proportion of tin than or calcined by the succeeding fuis usually done elsewhere, by which fion it has to undergo. The whole means their bells are more fono- is suffered to cool gradually, and is tous, but more brittle, than those then found to be of a brighter coof Europe. Their white copper, lour, and of a closer grain, than called in Chinese


has when prepared in the European beautiful Diver-like

appearance, way. The iron ore of the Chinese and a very close grain. It takes is not well managed in their smelta fine poliib; and many articles of ing furnaces; and the metal is neat workmandip in imitation of not fo loft, malleable, or duetile, filver, are made from it. An accu- as Britiih iron. Their limiths' work rate analysis has deternined it to is exceedingly brittle, as well as consist of copper, zinc; a little file clumiy, and not polithed. They ver, and, in some specimens, a few excel, indeed, in the art of casting particles of iron, and of nickel iron, and form plates of it much have been found. Tu-te-nag is thinner than is generally known properly speaking, zinc, extracted to be done in Europe . Much of from a rich ore, or calamine. The the tin imported by the Chinese, is ore is powdered and mixed with formed into as thin a foil as pollicharcoal duit, and placed in carthen ble, in order to gum it afterwards jars over a slow fire, by means of upon square pieces of paper, which which the metal rises in the form are burut before the images of of vapour, in a con:non difulling their idols. The amalgama of tin apparatus, and afterwards is con- and quicksilver is applied, by the denied in water. The calamine artists in Canton, in making small from whence this zinc is thus ex- mirrors, with glass blown upon the tacted, contains very little iron, spot from broken pieces of that


material imported whole from Eu- powder of the crystal falls as it is rope. The glass beads and but cut by the revolution of the wire. tons of various thapes and colours, With this mixture, the wire and worn by perfons of rank, are chiefly the groove it forms in the crystal, made at Venice; and this is among are often moistened. The powder the remnants of the great and al- of the crystal, like that of the diamoft exclusive trade which the mond, helps to cut and polish ita Venetians formerly carried on with self. The workmen did not seem the East. The Chinese make great to understand any principle of opuse of spectacles, which they tie tics, so as to forin the eye-glasses of round the head. They are formed such convexities or concavities, as of cryftal, which the Canton ar to supply the various defects of vitists cut into laminæ, with a kind fion; but left their customers to of steel saw, formed by twisting choose what was found to fuit two or more fine iron wires toge- them beft. The few lapidaries ther, and tying them like a bow- who cut diamonds at Canton, uled kring to the extremities of a small for that purpose adamantine spar, flexible bamboo. They undo one which being mixed in small proend of this string in order to pass portions with grey granite, the the wire round the crystal, where it mass was imagined to contain nois meant to be divided, and which thing else, and excited a doubt, is then placed between two pivots. whether it could be real diamond, It is thus fawed, in the manner which pure granite could affect. which European watch-makers use The Canton artists are uncommonin dividing small pieces of metal. ly expert in imitating European Below the crystal is a little trough works." of water, into which the filiceous

SKETCA of the Female ECONOMY of the SERAGLIO, and of the real



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HE inhabitants of the sera- seventh. The first of them who

glio exceed fix thousand, of gives an heir to the empire becomes which about five hundred are wo the favourite, and has the title of men. Many who are employed Haficky-Sultàn. There are many there during the day, have their others in the harem, but they felhouses and families in the city. dom are suffered to infringe the

6. When the sultan comes to the exclusive privilege of producing throne the grandees present him with heirs to the empire, which the ka virgin flaves, who, they hope, may dinns claim ; for with the others become their patronesses. — From the most infamous means of preventhere principally, fix are then chor- tion are forcibly adopted. If the en, who are styled Kadinns, but the child of the first halseky-sultàn Late sultan Abdul-bamid added a should die, her precedence is loft.

The old story of the ladies standing unblemished virginity, and what in a row, and the sultan's throwing in many instances, may heighten his handkerchief to his choice, is the idea of perfect paradite to

His preference is always themselves, not again to be united officially cuminunicated by the kis- with their former earthly husbands, làr-agha.

but to be allotted to other true “ So dependent is opinion upon musulmans by the benevolence of cducation and the early habits of the prophet. life, that the ftate of female society « The females of the seraglio in the seraglio, is to themselves that are chiefly Georgian and Circailian of the most perfect happiness. It flaves, selected from all that are eiwas ordained by Mahommed that ther privately bought, or exposed women thould not be treated as in. to sale in the Avrèt bazar*, and, tellectual beings, left they fhould for many reasons, are admitted at an aspire to equality with men. This early age. We may readily conclude fyltem he found already prevalent that an affemblage of native beauty in the east, and received by his fo exquisite, does not exist in any converts, and therefore cannot be other place. charged with having curtailed their “ The education of thefe girls is liberty and social intercourse. - very scrupulously attended to; they Throughout Turkey, in every rank are taught to dance with more lusof life, the women are literally chil- uriance than grace, to sing and to dren of larger growth, as trifling in play on the tambourin, a species of their amutements, as unbounded in guitar; and some of them excel in their desires, and as absolutely at embroidery. This arrangement is the dilpotal of others, being.confi. conducted solely by the elder wodered by the men merely as created men, though from the taste for Eafor the purposes of nature, or sexual ropean fashions, which fultan Seluxury. None of our mistakes con- lim openly avows, fome Greek wocerning the opinions of the Turks, men bave been lately introduced to is more unjust than that which re- teach them the harp and piano-forte, spects the notion attributed to them, which they had learned for that that women have no souls; on the purpose. Amongst the five hunother hand, they are promised in dred already mentioned the kiflàrthe Koràn to be restored with all agha precifely settles all precedence. the charts of eternal youth and Some are disqualified by age from

** The Avrèt Bazar (woman market) conhsis of an inclosed court. with a cloiter and small apartments furrounding it. It is fupplied by female flaves brought irom Egypi, Abyfinia, Georgia, and Circaffia, who are exposed to public sale every Friday morning. Those from the firft mentioned countries are generally parchased for domelic services, which, in a menial capacity, no Turkish woman will condescend to perform; their perfons or countenances are rarely beautiful, and their price feldom excceds forty poundi English. The exquisite beauty of the others is enhanced by every art of dress and oria ental aceomplishments, and they are usually sold for several thousand piastres. Many are reserved for the feraglio, where, though they are considered as moft fortunate, thes are most frequently fucrificed. Intrigues are concealed by the application of poisonova drugs which often occasion death, and upon detection of pregnancy they are instantly drowned. One thadders to relate how many of these victims are taken ont into the les at the dead of the night, and committed to the decp. Formerly, the Avret Bazar was open to Franks, who were supposed to purchase Daves in order to redeem them, bat they are not excluded, by order of the prekent fultan's satser."


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