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the notice of the sultan, and of curate information concerning the those who are considered as wives interior palace must be collected, there are four; he is restricted to and to such I am, at present, in. Teven, but as to concubines there debted. is no legal limitation, and their " The articles of female habili. number depends on the inclination ment are infinite, both as coft of their sublime master. The fu- and number; but change of fashion periors spend their time in a series is adopted only for the head attire, of sedentary amusements. Dress, which happens with scarcely less the most fumptuous that can be , frequency than in the courts of Euimagined, changed frequently in rope. They are imitated by the the course of the day, the most Greek ladies, whose drets differs little magnificent apartments and furni- from theirs; but the original Greek ture, visits of ceremony with each dress, rather than of the Turkish other, and the incessant homage of harèm, is that described by lady M. their subordinate companions, fill Wortley Montague. Both the style their minds with a sort of supine of beauty, and the idea of improve happiness, which indeed is all that ing its effect by ornament amongst moft Turkish women aspire to, or the Ottoman women, have much are qualified to experience. fingularity. Of the few I have

“ Sometimes, as an indulgence, seen with an open veil, or without they are permitted to go to the one, the faces were remarkable for kiosques near the sea, of which cir-' their symmetry and brilliant comcumstance the officers of police are plexion, with the nose straight and informed, that no vessel fhould ap- small, the eyes vivacious, either proach too near the seraglio point. black or dark blue, having the eye. Every summer the sultan visits his brows partly from nature, and as palaces in rotation for a short time much from art, very full and joining with his harèm, when every pass over the nose. They have a custom and avenue, within three or five too of drawing a black line with a miles distance, is guarded by fierce mixture of powder of antimony and bostandjìs*, left the approach of oil, called Surmeh, above and unany male being Mould contaminate der the eye-lashes, in order to give them.

the eye more fire. Of the shape “ They depend entirely upon and air little can be said from our their female faves for amusements idea of lovelinels. All the Levanwhich have avy thing like gaiety tine women, from their mode of for their object, and recline on their fitting on their sofa, stoop extremesofas for hours, whilft dancing, co- ly, and walk very awkardly. Warm medy, and buffoonery, as indelicate baths used without moderation, and as our vulgar puppet show, are exhi- unrelieved idleness, spoil in most bited before them. Greek and instances, by a complete relaxation Frank ladies occasionally visit them, of the folids, forms that nature inwhole husbands are connected with tended should rival the elegance of the Porte as merchants or interpre- their countenances. The Dails both ters, under pretence of Thewing of the fingers and feet are always them curiofities from Europe. ftained of a rose colour. Such is From such opportunities all the ac- the tatte of Asiatics. The discri

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minative trait of beauty between and bazars in groupes of muffled the Circassian and Greek women, is figures, or go to the cemeteries, the more majestic air and ftature of where, upon stated days, under prethe former, while the latter excel tence of laying prayers at the graves upon a smaller scale, no less in of deceased friends, they enjoy the brilliancy of complexion, than in shade of cypreffes, whilst loitering symmetry and delicacy of forn. away many hours; and thow unreThe statues of Juno, Minerva, or strained happiness, by the most vethe Amazons, are contrasted by that hement loquacity. Several times a of the Medicean Venus. Both very year they are drawn in arabàhs, or generally answer to Homer's de. painted waggons with a covering icription of the full eyed,' and of red cloth, by buffaloes gaudily the deep bofomed.'

harnessed, to fome favourite retreat “ In the streets of Constantino- in the country, but never attended plé no female appears without her by the men of their family. feredjè and mahramah; the former « That love of splendid dress resembles a loose riding coat with which distinguishes the nations of a large square cape, covered with the east, pervades every rank of fequilted filk, and hanging down low males. Those connected with the behind, made universally amongit meanest labourer occasionally wear the Turks of green cloth, and a- brocade, rich furs, and embroidery mongst the Greeks and Armenians of gold or silver, which are willing. of brown, or some grave colour. ly supplied by his daily toil. In The mahramah is formed by two large harèms the number of chilpieces of muslin, one of which is dren is proportionably small, where tied under the chin, enveloping the few women produce more than head, and the other across the three. Much has been said conmouth and half the nose, admitting cerning the infidelity of the Turk. space enough for right. Yellow ith women belonging to harèms of boots are drawn over the feet; and quality; whoever has passed a few thus equipped a woman may meet years in this country, must know the public eye without scandal. that any scheme of gallantry would This drets is of very ancient inven- be utterly impracticable, however tion, calculated for concealment of they may have been prompted, by the person, nor can there be a more personal vanity, to impose a false complete disguise.

opinion on the world. In complete “In every civilited country the establishments they are guarded by middle ranks in fociety enjoy the thote unfortunate men truest comfort. Whilst the ladies of the harèmıs of great or opulent

• Who youth ne'er loved, and beauty ne'er Turks, are consoling themselves

enjoyed;' with fastidious indulgence, in luxu- and in those of less expevce, by old ry unknown to the vulgar, the wives, women, whole ceaseleis vigilance is and concubines of fober citizens are equally secure. allowed alınost a free intercourte " If such things ever happen, it ' with each other. The muen, mer may be fuppofed of those who are • chants or mechanics, are engaged permitted to gad abroad; but this

in their various occnpations, icav- privilege is conditional, and never ing the whole day at the disposal without a certain number of relaoi the women, who walk the lireets tives or neighbours.

“ During

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" During my residence at Pera, « The real state of female flaves I heard of but one circumstance in Turkey has been much misrepreonly. A young Venetian served in sented. I do not allude to it prethe shop of an apothecary at Con- viously to their establishment in ftantinople, whom a Turkish lady, some harèm, when exposed to sale attended only by her Nave, came to with practices of their owners consult, and was thewn into another equally repugnant to humanity and room, leaving the apprentice and decency: but when they become the fair Circallian alone. It is said, private property, they are well that nothing then passed between clothed, and treated with kindness them. In a few days returning by their mistresses. If the husband with her mistreis, and the same op- presents his wife with a female portunity recurring, the opened her llave, the becomes her sole property, heart, proposed elopement, and and he cannot cohabit with her promised much treasure. She kept without legal complaint of the her word, and they disappeared wife, excepting with her consent, without subsequent detection. Up- which prudence generally inclines on discovery the punishment of her to give. No woman of Turkthese lovers would have been hor- ish birth can be an odalik, or do rible; he would have been impaled mestic flave. Illegitimacy is unalive, and the drowned in a lack. known, for every child, born of the Such a penal code as that of the wife or concubine, has nearly equal Turks, has in no period of corrup- rights. The superior privilege of tion been adopted by any nation of the wife consists only in the parti: Christians.

tion of the husband's property on “ Intidelity or licentiousness in his deceate, and the difficulty of women, is a lubject of the feverest procuring a divorce without her crimination amongst the Turks, and acquieicence. 0daliks are diftheir punishment of it borders up- miiled and resold at pleasure, ik on gross barbarity. That branch they have borne no child. But it of police is under the jurisdiction frequently happens that they become of the boîtandji bashi, or captain of confidential with their mistresses, the guard, with many interior of- are emancipated, and married to ficers. When any of these milera- husbands whom they provide for ble girls are apprehended, for the them. Few young men have more first time they are put to hard la- 'than one wife, but the elder, if bour, and itrictly confined; but for opulent, indulge themselves to the the second they are re-committed, extent of the prophet's licence and many at a time tied up in facks, My fair countrywomen, from 10 and taken in a boat to the Seraglio- light a sketch of female economy point, where they are thrown into in this eccentric nation, may form the tide. The Turks excuse this favourable conclusions respecting cruelty by pleading the law, and that of our own. They may reft adding that every woman has it in allured, that in no other country her power to be attached to one are the moral duties and rational man, by kebinn, or contract for a liberty to justly appreciated, or to certain term before the kady, which generally rewarded with happiceremony would exempt them from pess.” the cognizance of the police.

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OBSERVATIONs and ANECDOTES, illustrative of the present POLICE,

COMMERCE, STATE of SOCIETY, and MANNERS at CONSTANTINOPLE.

[From the same Work.) "

"HE greater part of the night prise; there is no noise of carri.

in many European capitals ages, and even the busy haunts is little discriminated from the of men' are scarcely different from broad day in the bustle of crowded the abode of filence. streets, but the last muezzin has 56 Much of the romantic air scarcely called the hour of evening which pervades the domestic habits prayer before each habitually rober of the persons described in the Aramusulman retires from public no- bian Nights' Entertainments, partitice, and the refort of thousands cularly in inferior life, will be obduring a long day, from sun rise to served in passing througirthe streets. fun fet, becomes an unoccupied · And we recur with additional plea{pace, like a defert. One hour af- fure to a remembrance of the de: ter sun fet every gate of the city is light with which we at first perused Nhut, and entrance ftri&tly prohibit them, in finding them authentic ed.

portraits of every oriental nation. “ The houses of the opulent Some years ago no Frank could Turks are large, with the most con- walk in Constantinople without the venient part appropriated as the risque of incurring infult, and the harèm, which is usually surrounded merchants of Pera were ufually with a court, be it ever so small, protected by a janissary. At this having a fountain in the midst time no molestation is to be feared, These apartments are remarkable at leaft by a person who is prudent for their neatness, and all the ac. enough to give the upper hand to commodation that the climate and a Turk. This favourable change architecture will admit; for it is has taken place only since the conhere only that the poffeffor displays clufion of ihe war in 1774. Many any expence in ornament, or furni- victories in succession had persuadture. As to the houses in general, ed them of their superiority over they are mere comfortless wooden the Christians, of whom they have boxes, cool in summer, but ill several millions of subjects ; till at adapted to wet or cold weather, the time above mentioned prince being full of unglazed windows, Repnin, attended by fix hundred and without fire-places ; in winter soldiers, with their drawn swords, supplied by earthen pans of char- paraded through the city, when he coal, which tuffocate whilst they came to give them that peace, warm you. The ground floor is a which they had so humbly begged continuation of the street, and the of the Russians. This circumstance ftaircase a dirty ladder, frequently has had a wonderful effect in rein darkness.

ducing the infolence and ferocity of " That such a stillness fhould their national character. reign in the crowded streets of a “ Fires are so frequent that few capital, who ever has visited those months pass without them, and of Europe, will observé with lur- ' they are generally fo furious, that

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whole diftricts are lain in afhes. At such rencounters no crowned · Houses are fo foon re-erected, that head need envy sultan Selim his the former appearance of the streets, situation. As this is the only pris is speedily restored, and little altera- vileged time of conveying the voice tion is ever made in their form. of the people to his ears, and as Notice of a fire at Conftantinople, women in Turkey say any thing or at Galata, is given by beating a with impunity, it is presumed that great drum from two high towers; many of the fires are not accidentthe night watch then patrole the al. ftreets, striking the pavement with “ As a grand spectacle, detachtheir ftaves thod with iron, and cry- ing the idea of commiseration of ing out · Yangen var' -- There is the calamity from the present view, • a fire,' vaning the place. The ful- if a volcanic eruption be excepted, tan is then fummoned three times, none can exceed a great fire at and when the conflagration has Constantinople. The houses being lafted one hour he is forced to at- constructed with wood, and fretend in perfon, and to bring mules quently communicating with mawith him laden with piaftres, which gazines, filled with combustible he distributes with his own hands materials, a vast column of fame, 10 the firemen, who are very in- of the most luminous glow, rises ađive before his arrival. Thefe from the centre, which lighting up are armed againft accidents in the the mosques, and contiguous cysame manner as they are in London, press groves, produces an effect and are .equally expert and adven- of superior magnificence. In other turous. Fires are extinguished, by cities, where the buildings are of pulling down the adjoining houses, stone, the fames are seen partially, for the engines are very imall, and or are overpowered by smoke. borne on the shoulders of two 66 The merchandise and trade of men.

Conitantinople are carried on prin“ The perfect resignation with cipally in the khans, bazars, and which a good mufilman fees bisbezesten, according to the cuftom. house contiimed by the fames, and of the east, each of which requires himlelf reduced from affluence to a summary defcription. poverty, has been often and juftly “ The khans are spacious strucremarked by others; he exclaims tures, with quadrangles erected by

Allah Karim'- God is merci. the munificence of the sultans, or 6 ful,' without apparent enotion, some of the royal family, for the and has assured himself that the public benefit. They are entirely same providence which hath made surrounded by a cloister and colo

and abject, can once nade, into which numerous celis more restore him to wealth if open, generally repeated for three it be his fate. For the women, stories; are built with stone and they have not the praise of such fire proof. Here the merchants philosophy. They assemble in a from every part of the empire, who groupe near the sultan, and unmer travel with caravans, are received cifully load him with the bitterest with accommodations for themrevilings, particularising his own selves and their valuable traffic. crimes, and the errors of his

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" In the bazars are assembled Fernment, and charging him with dealers of each nation under the the cause of their present calamity. Turkish government, who have

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