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his interest to be inseparably the they perceived, that they were neisame with that of the Medici. But ther lo rich nor so happy as before all these pleasing appearances va, the expulsion of the latter. nished; cardinal Sforza died; Pisa “ Soderini too was the ally of was deserted by her allies; and car. France, who had

treated the cominondinal de la Rovere, the nephew of wealth with an excess of haughti: Sixtus IV. became pope, o&. 17, ness. Great numbers of the citi1503, fucceeding Pius III. whó zens were secretly attached to the had survived his election only a Medici from friendship, interest, month. The new pontilf took the or gratitude, and not a few from name of Julius II. arid one of his fear and the love of change, which first acts of power was, to declare always has its charms with the pohimself the ally of Florence, with pulace. whom he first signed a treaty, and “No person could be better adthen a peace. Florence, by thiş apted to profit by these favourable extraordinary alteration, regained conjun&ures than Giovanni ; he her loft dominions, and civil dil: possessed every requisite to please; cord subsiding, the Medici seemed was in the prime of his life, handfor ever excluded her walls. fome, graceful, polite, affable,

Giovanni's drooping hopes, magnificent, and liberal. So many however, were soon raised again splendid qualities cloathed with by the folly of Soderini, who had the cardinalate, and invested with exasperated his new ally, the pope, both the legatinefhips of Perusia by imprudently permitting a gene- and Bologna, with ihe recollection ral council, called by Lewis XII. of his father's great merit, confirm: to fit at Pisa. In revenge for this ed the wavering, and won new insult

, and to take from the French partizans. The religious looked a power that was their great lup- upon him as the mediator between port, his holiness determined to them and heaven, and the young restore the Medici, as it would he- nobility trusted to him to support ceffarily destroy Soderini, who was them in their extravagancies. at the head of the republic, and in “ In this crisis nothing could be his stead place Giovanni, who was, more opportune than the gonfaboth from interest and inclination, lonier's joining the French in their the enemy of a nation that he could attempts upon Milan ; as it connot endure.

vinced Julius that he and France “ Several favourable circum- were not to be separated, and stances occurred to promote this determined him no longer to dechange. The Florentines, disguft- fer thie ruin of his interest in ed with Soderini's impolitic con Florence by the recal of the Meduct, of having himself declared dici. gonfalonier for life, in imitation of “Upon the eve, as Giovanni fup. Cæsar's perpetual dictatorship, were poted, of this being accomplished, convinced that they were no more he saw himself, by the loss of the safe under him than they had been battle of Ravenna, a prisoner to before the expulsion of the Me. Lewis XII. of which Julius was dici, not that they enjoyed more no sooner informed, than by a moFreedom under the government of nitory addressed to the conqueror, Soderini than they had done un- he demanded his liberation. der that of the exiled family; and * Giovanni at the same time re


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ceived from his holiness a commif- the kind design of Zallo, for the
fion to absolve such of the victo- guard affrighted, by supposing them
rious foldiers as applied for pardon, a regular body of forces, deferted
for having dared to withstand the their prisoner, to seek their own
arms of the vicar of Christ, and a safety in flight.
power of granting funereal rites to “ His escape gave new life to
the dead : it is impossible to express the hopes of the party ; Julius in.
the effects this produced. The fol- stantly renounced the treaty he bad
diers, respecting him as alone hav- folemnly concluded with Florence,
ing true apoftolic power, thronged and at a congress of the holy
to him, and not only the common league it was resolved, through the
men, but the ennobled persons of persuasion of the papal ambassador,
the illustrious families of Visconti, seconded by the entreaties of Ju-
Palavicini, and Trivalzi; perhaps lian, the brother of Giovanni, to
too the opposition of Giovanni's restore the Medici to their country:
character to San Severino, the le- To carry this into effe&, Giovanni
gate of the council of Pisa, not a was invested with legatine power
little contributed to this, for he throughout Tuscany, and put at
was reserved, haughty, and severe; the head of the pontifical army,
and infiead of the habit of peace, which was joined by the troops of
in which his rival appeared, he Naples, commanded by the vice-
wore bright shining armour. roy of Ferdinand the Catholic.

To prevent the desertion of It was to no purpose the Flo-
the army, which looked up to him rentines urged the repeated treaties
with reverence and love, it was that had been concluded between
resolved to send him into France, them and the allies, and the exact-
no place in Italy being judged pro- ness with which they had fulfilled
per to confine him. Giovanni find- the last. The confederates infifted
ing the intention of his enemies, upon Soderini's abdicating the gon-
prudently threw every impediment falonierthip, and admitting the Me-
in the way, prolonging his stay in dici into Florence; this he abso-
the camp as long as poffible; and lutely refused.
when obliged to commence -his “ The fordid avarice of Sode-
journcy, he pursued the same plan, rini defeated its oven aim, and
flattering himself that some fa- befriended the Medici to a great
vourable circumstance might offer degree; he had heretofore re-
to aslitt him in making his escape. fused the assistance of the empe:

“ Early one morning, as Gio ror Maximilian at a ftipulated vanni was preparing to take a boat price, so now he refused to part to pass over the river Po, opposite with thirty thousand dacats, which to Bisignana, Rinaldo Zallo, a no the coverous viceroy asked as the ble Venetiau, observing the facred terms of betraying the interest of dignity of the pritoner, refolved, the exited family. if posible, to procure him his li " He foolithly relied upon the berty; for this purpose collecting faith of the fickle multitude. Fawith expedition his domestics, and tal fecurity! Prato was formed, some peatants of the village of and Piftra revolted, declaring for Del Cairo, whom he ordered to the Medici. These misfortunes advance shouting, and fall upon filled Florence with discontent, the guard. The project answered and whilst a' revolt was each mo

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ment threatened, Julian, with three the young nobility by an excess of other young noblemen, accom- liberality. plished the revolution. The names “ Having by thefe means preof these grandees were Bartolomeo pared for the completion of his Valori, Paulo Vettori, and Antonio project, he excused' bimself from Francesco Albizi; the scheme was paying the viceroy of Naples, preplanned in a conference held at a tending that he could not procure country feat not far from Florence. the money, owing to the French

They carried their intentions faction in the city, who threw into execution by secretly entering every obstacle to it is his way. The the city with their partizans, when greedy vice-king fell into the snare seizing Soderini, they obliged him, fo art fully laid for him; he, anxiby threatening instant death in case ous to fecure the stipulated fum, of refusal, to quit the magistracy. and disregarding the manner in The unhappy man tremblingly which it was raised, told Giovanni complied with commands he durft that he might dispose of the city not difpute, and fled immediately in what manner he chose, as molt after to Ragusa by sea, with the conducive to obtain the withed-for money he could convey away; but money. the four youths who undertook the " This was a moment not to be plot seized upon the pablic trea- loft, he affembled the people in the sury, and then assembled the peo- great square, where he stationed ple, taking advan:age of the uni- his friends, many of whom were versal panic to procure the repeal lately won by the money he had of the banishment of the Medici. judiciously applied ; there all voted

“ The artful Jalius, gratified for a change in the form of gothat he had restored the exiled fa- veroment, and placed none but mily, wished them only to be such as he approved in the magiesteemed as private citizens of Flo- ftracy; few, except Baptifto Rorence, supposing them equal in that dolphi, the new gonfalonier, and the capacity to contend with the French other officers of justice, oppofing fa&tion; and flattered himself, that it, but there were borne down, whilft he thus kept them, he might as prejudiced to their own intereft;a depend upon the fidelity of Gio- those who bad the same sentiments vanni. This however did not fa- finding themselves surrounded by tisfy the cardinal, he was too pe- the Neapolitan troops, lent for the netrating to be long the dupe of prefent purpote by the viceroy, the pontiff's ambition.

knowing how vain, how danger" To counteract his holiness's de ous would be their opposition, apfign, he used all those blandith- peared to acquiefce in what they ments that seemed so natural to could not prevent. him, and which won, defervedly « This revolution at once surwon, every heart. He protected prised and alarmed Julius ; know. the women of Prato from the bru- ing that the Catl»olic king paid tality of the foldiers, and put a ftop no regard to the moft folemn ireato the carpage of the men of that ties, when it was his interest to place. He acted with moderation break them, he imagined that Gioto all ; he interceded with his vanni had won him over by fome friends to spare the most violent extraordinary temptation, never snemies of his house. He gained fupposing that the young cardinal


could have dared to have acted with Rome; the expences were more such determined courage, had not than one hundred thousand crowns he depended upon the support of It was celebrated upon the anni. so powerful a prince. He feared versary of the battle of Ravenna ; the power of Spain equally with and his holiness rode the samne borse that of France, and felt himself he did when he had been captured. ill at ease in supposing that two It is foreigo to the design of these such powerful states thould almost memoirs to write the history of the surround his dominions, who were papacy during his pontificate, but allies, and could, with the aftlistance only continue to represent him to drawn from Spain, give laws to the the reader as the principal of the patrimony of St. Peter. Entertain- house of Medici. ing these sentiments, it is not to be “ What a change was here in wondered at that his holiness de- the fortune of the lately exiled cartermined to deprive Giovanni of dinal! He was now sovereign of that consequence he had dared to two considerable states, and, in right seize without his participation. of one, the acknowledged head of

“ Perhaps nothing could have Europe. Leo regarded his elevasaved the Medici from a cruel re tion in no other estimation, than verse to their newly renewed con- as the means it afforded him to raise quence, but the timely death of the his family to permanent sovereignviolent Julius II. who was taken ty. from his earthly grandeur, February “ The most powerful monarchs 21, 1513.

vied with each other in offering “ Though the Medici were solate- him and his family their friendly reinftated in the government of thip; Ferdinand the Catholic, and Florence, yet Giovanni had the Francis I. the successor of Lewis courage to leave the republic and XII, ftrove who should most ingrarepair to Rome, to allift in the con- tiate themselves by their liberality clave at the election of a successor to the Medici. The former proto Julius. Whilst detained in this posed an advantageous marriage confinement he fell ill, scandal says between Julian and a princess of of a complaint never occafioned by Cordona, allied to the crown of chastity, and the young and the old Spain, but Francis outbid himn by cardinals quarrelling which should offering his aunt, Philiberta, daughappoint a future pope, both parties ter of Philibert, and sister of Charles, at length acquiefced in nominating dukes of Savoy. In right of this Giovanni, though only thirty-leven lady he became duke of Nemours, years of age, from the supposition and by the bounty of his brother that his present malady would foon he was impowered to settle upon terminate fatally; and Giovanni, his bride one hundred thousand duto the joint surprise of th: world, cats. Henry VIII. who also courtand of himself, was faluted sove- ed the friendfhip of the Medici, reign pontiff, March 10, in the created the duke knight of the garpreceding year, aisuming the name ter, and dedicated to his holiness of Leo X. upon the occasmn, in his well known book written a. conformity to the usage of the gaintt the tenets of Luther, for popes.

which Leo gave him the title of in his coronation, dir: Defender of the Faith. played a magnificence that ex « Leo, not content with the hoceeded whatever had been seen in nours and titles he bad procured


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Julian, meditated to raise him to the gratitude was of little avail when sovereignty of Modena, Reggio, Par- interest called; belides, the duke ma, Placenza, and the Ferrare(e. had been averse to the relioration The four latter had been mortgaged of the Medicean power in Florence, to his holinels by the emperor which Leo thought abrogated all Maximilian for forty thousand du- former obligation. cats, for which he was declared 6 The amiable Julian whilft he hereditary vicar, and had not Max- lived had conftantly opposed Leo's imilian redeemed them, Leo would intention, as 'inconsistent with dehave conveyed them over to Jun cency and honour, but his death lian.

left his holiness at liberty to act as " The ambitious pontiff aimed he pleased, without such a monitor at ftill higher promotion for his to check his designs. The duke brother; he meant to wrest the of Urbino's character was not irrecrown of Naples from Arragon, proachable; an excuse for the inand place it upon his head, and tended violence' was easily procurthere can be little doubt but that ed: he had in the heat of passion he would have attained some great stabbed the cardinal of Pavià for er dignity for him, had not death his attachment to France; this was spatched Julian away. His loss the crime principally intisted upon, was greatly deplored both by his though his having loft Bologna to family and the public, because the papacy, his opposing the restowith a taste equal to Leo's he uni- ration of the Medici, and poffeffted many distinguished virtues. ing a fine principality, were the Julian was born in 1478, and died greatest in ihe eye of the greedy March 17, 1516, and was buried ambitious pontiff. in the church of St. Lorenzo, in “ Leo fulminated his thunder Florence. His monument was the against him, and declared his duwork of Michael Angelo, whose chy forfeited to the holy fee, of much admired ftatues of Day and which he held. Francisco Maria Night are a part of it. By Phili- did not pay implicit obedience, he berta he had no child; but he left remonstrated, he did more, he put Hippolito, an illegitimate son, who himfelf in a posture of defence, became a cardinal.

but the treasury of Florence pour“ Leo accomplished his with in ed out her ample stores to obtain providing for Julian, without giv- what rendered arms of little avail. ing uneasiness, or being guilty of The foldiers were bribed, and the injustice to any one; but his con- duke was obliged to leave his doduct was most reproachable in his minions to the Medici, to whom advancement of Lorenzo, the son he had formerly given asylum. of the unfortunate Pietro. He This business cost eight hundred had given him an excellent educa- thousand ducats, but the annual tion, and placed him over the re revenue of Urbino was very great; public of Florence to govern under even Pisaro, San Leo, and Singahimself. To raise him to an inde- lia, which were reparate members pendeat fovereignty, however, was of it, and conquered with the duhis aim, and he fixed upon Urbi- chy, yielded a revenue of twentyno, though its duke, Francisco- five thoutand ducats. Maria, had fhewed every kindness “ His holiness having provided to him and his brother in the first Lorenzo, his nephew, with a prinyears of their banishment. But cipality, united him in marriage


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