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Imall fhops in front, and a room is fixed to his shop-board with his behind, for their wares. These are legs under him for many hours, and very extenfive cloisters of stone, nerer relaxes into civility with his lofry and lighted by dones ; are Frank customer, but from the hopes admirably adapted to the climate, of advantage. One may venture and in summer are extremely cool. to give him two thirds of his deOne called the Misr Chartíliè, or mand; but to those of other naEgyptian market, is set apart for tions not more than half. The the merchandise of Cairo, chiefly Greek, more pliant and prevaricalminerals and drugs, and is a great ing, praises his commodity beyond curiosity for the naturalist.

measure, and bas generally to con“ Other quarters are occupied gratulate himself upon baving outby the working jewellers, where witted the mott cautious dealer. raw jewels may be advantageously The Armenian, beavy and placid, pnrchased; and by the bookiellers, is roused to animation only by the who have each his assortment of sight of money, which he cannot Twkish, Arabic, and Persian MSS. withstand. As for the Jew, every of which they do not always know where a Jew, he is more frequentthe value, but demand a considerable ly employed as a broker, a bufiness price. The oriental scholar may which that people have had address here find MSS. equally beautiful enough to engrofs; and fome acand rare, as fince the civil commo- quit themselves with honetty and tions in Persia, the most elegant credit. Those of the lower fort books, taken in plunder, have been are walking auctioneers, who tramp fent to Constantinople for sale, to over the bazars, and carry the avoid detection,

goods with them, vociferating the “ The staple articles of importa- price last offered. Each of theie tion from England are cloth and nations, which conftitute the vakt block tin, as the consumption of population of Conftantinople, bas a both is very great. Englith watches, different mode of covering the prepared for the Levant market, are head, a circumftance foon learid, more in demand than those of other and which renders the groupes of Frank nations, and are one of the figures fufficiently amuding, as it firft articles of luxury that a Turk breaks the lameness of their other purchases or changes if he has mo- dress. The Armenians, Jews, and ney to spare.

the mechanical Greeks, usually - The national character is here wear blue, which the Turks conadmirably discriminated, and to in- lider as a dishonourable colour, and vestigate it with success no place have their flippers of a dirty red offers such opportunity as these mar- leather. kets.

“ The common trades are dirA stranger will wonder to see posed, all of one kind in tingle So many of their fhops left open, streets. Shoe-makers, furriers, and without a matter or guard ; but pil-. pipe-makers, with many others, ocjaing is not a Turkith vice.

cupy each their distinct district, and He thould be informed previ- are seldom found disperied, as in oly, that no article of commerce our cities. has a stated price ; bargains must “ A room of very confiderable be made, and the basist imposition dimentions, is called the bezeliin, as counted fair gain. Thi Turk or public exchange, where are col


with us.

lected second-hand goods, which come during the greater part of the are hawked about by the aucti- day, which passes there, consume oneers. In another part are the thirty or forty pipes, and as many sarraffs, or money changers, Arme- clips of coffee, boiling hot, thick, nians and Jews.

and withoui lugar. I regret my incompetency to só Betide thefe, near the Osmanie, describe the various mechanic arts, are teriaki-hand, where (afioni) which are practised in the eatt, and opium is told; and taken in gradaparticularly by the Turks, to dif- tion from ten to a bundred grains ferent from our own; and leave it in a day. Intoxication with this to some future visitant, well qua- noxious drug is certainly less prevalified to give the history of their lent than we have been informed; manufa&ures, and the divers modes and he who is entirely addicted to by which the fame effect is pro- it, is contidered with as much pity duced, and the same utenfils are or disgust as an inveterate fot is made.

The preparation of opi“ The necessaries of life are well um is made with several rich symanaged, and the fhops of cooks, rups, and infpiffated juices, to renconfectioners, and fruiterers, are der it palatable and less intoxicatexcellently 1tored, and served with ing, and resembles elder rob. It is neatness. For the greater part of either taken with a spoon, or hardthe year, sherbets with ice are cried ened into small lozenges, stamped about the streets, at a very cheap with the words. Malh allah,' literate. The bakers exercise a lucra- rally the work of God.' tive, but a dangerous trade, if they • The Turks take opium as an are not proof againit temptation to intoxicant, or occasionally under an fraud. Their weights are examined idea of its invigorating quality, at uncertain times, and a common when unusual fatigue is to be en. punishment on detection is nailing dured. The Tartar couriers, who their ear to the door-post. Upon travel with astonishing expedition, a complaint made to the late vilier generally furnish themselves with Mehmet Melek against a notorious * Math allàh. A leading cause of cheat, he ordered him to be inftant- its disule is, that the prejudices rely hanged. The mafter escaped, specting wine are daily relaxing, but the servant, a poor Greek, per- which accounts for the scarcely crefectly innocent, was executed. It dible quantity and univerfality menwas remarked to a Turk, that this tioned by old writers being unacinjustice was foreign to the charac- cordant with modern practice. ter for clemency, which Melek “ The administration of justice bore, when he sarcastically replied, in Constantinople is notoriously • The visier had not yet breakfast- corrupt. It is placed solely in the ed.'

hands of the oulemah, or ecclefiafti“ The coffee houses, which a cal body, who are confirmed in bo!ind, are fitted up in an airy Chi- their rapacity by being secured nese taste, and curiously painted. from the interposition of the body Within, they are divided into par- politic, as they receive no salary titions or stages without feats, for from the state. In these two causés the Turks fit as the taylors in Eng- originates a system of enormous peland. The resort of all ranks to culation and bribery, to that for them is universal and constant; and the poor there is no redress. Turk

ith jurisprudence professes the im- are not frequent, excepting in the plicit direction of the koran, but great roads through distant provinmore attention is paid to the mul- ces, where they are always pudithtèkah, or sophèt, containing the ed with impalement. There is no traditional injuctions; after all, the place of public execution; and interest or caprice of the judge when a criminal is condemned, he biailes the decision.

is led down the nearest street by “ The rank of Turkishi lawyers the executioner, who is provided is the mufti, or deputy to the with a large nail and cord, which sultan; as kalife or oracle of the he places over the door of any shop law, the kadilescars of Roumily and where he is not paid for forbearance. Anadoly ; fupreme in their distinct The body is raised a few inches ondifiricts, mollahs, muselims, and ly above the ground, and muk be kadies. These hold their meke- Jeft untouched for three days. In mehs, or halls of justice, 'where instances of decapitation, the more they try criminals and hear causes, honourable punishment, it is erin which oral testimony always pre- posed as long in the street, with the vails -against written evidence. -- head under the arm, if a mulutThree MSS. of the Koran, the man, but if a rayah, between the Evangelifts, and the Pentateuch, legs. So horrid a spectacle excites are kept by the kadies, who admi-" no emotion in the mind of a Turk, nifter oaths upon them, according for it is certain, that by no nation, to the religion of the person to be be it as savage as it may, is the life [worn. Falle witnefles are easily of a man to lightly regarded as by procured; they frequent certain them. This is a disgusting, but coffee-houses, where these infa. true sketch of their laws and execumous transactions are arranged. If tive justice. one of these wretches be too often “ Personal combat, unknown to detected, or has forfeited the inte. the ancients, but for universal in rested connivance of the judge, he modern Europe fince the days of is given over to the punishment of Chibaley, is not practised amongit the law. Mounted on an ass, with his the Turks, nor is assassination, the arms and legs tied, and his face 10- disgrace of many nations, in any ward the tail, he is led through the degree frequent. Connections with streets and bazars, where he is in- women, the great cause of invetesulted with every grossness, and if a rate quarrels, are so arranged as to Turk fares very ill.

render interference with each other “ It is truly remarkable, in so almost impotlible. Before marri

. great a population, that criminal age they are not seen by their caufes do not occur more frequent lovers, and after only by their hully. Murders are seldom heard of, bands and near relatives. There and happen amongti the foldiers is likewise an inviolable point of oftener than other descriptions of honour between men respecting people; they are certainly prevent- their harems, and an avowed libered by the prohibition of wearing tine would be banished from fociearms in the capital. If the mur- ty. Poiton, fecretly given, is the derer escape justice for twenty-four punishment he would probably in• hours, he is not appenable to the cur. law; at least, has a good chance of “ To another occasion of personevading its vengeance. Robberies al provocation they are equally


Atrangers. Gaming is prohibited by tioners, and the coffee-houses, are the Mohammedan law, and as chels unusually decorated and frequentis their favourite amusement, their ed. There are exhibitions of low fingular proficiency is a proof that humour, and the kara-guze, or pupa the love of gain may not be the on- pet show, represented by Chinele ly inducement to excel. Wagers, inades. or anticipating the chances of any “ For the graver sort, most coftrial of 1kill or common event, they fee-houses retain a raccontatorè, or can consider as unlawful.

profeiled story teller, who entertains “ To the absence of these power a very attentive audience for many ful incitements to anger, and to hours. They relate eastern tales, their national suavity of manners or sarcastic anecdotes of the times, as confined to themselves, may be and are sometimes engaged by goattributed much social harmony, vernment to treat on politics, and though with fewer examples of to reconcile the people to any redifinterested friendthip than a cent measure of the sultan or vifier. mongst us. The Turk shews in- Their manner is very animated, infolence or moroseness to those and their recitation accompanied only whom his prejudices exclude by much gesticulation. They have from intercourse.

the finesse, when they perceive the “ The Rammezan, or Turkish audience numerous, and eeply enLent, lafts for one complete moon, gaged, to defer the sequel of their and takes every month in the year, itory. The nightly illuminations in rotation. No institution can be of every minareh in the city, espemore strictly or more generally ob- cially those of the imperial molques, served; it enjoins perfe& abstinence produce a very fingular and fplenfrom fun-rise to sun-set, from every did effect. ' Within each of these, kind of aliment, even from water. the vast concaves of the domes are Mohammed did not foresee that lighted up by some hundred coffee and tobacco would become of coloured glais; and externally the chief luxury of his followers, cords are thrown across from one and various were the opinions re- minareh to another, and the lamps specting the legality of taking them fantastically difpofed in letters and in Rammezan; which were finally figures. I was not more agreeably determined in the negative. There surprised by any thing I faw in are indeed days of penance to the Constantinople, than the whole aplabourer and mechanic, but to the pearance of the firit night in Ramopulent only a pleasing variety, for - they neep all day, and in the even “ As an indulgence from the seing feast and make merry; as if verities of Lent, the Turks have they exulted in cheating the pro- their Beyràm, and the Christians phet. The only thow of mortiti- their Eatter. At this season, those cation is a prohibition from enter- ' of every nation appear in new ing the harem during the twelve clothes, and exhibit all poffible hours of faiting. Every night of gaiety. Places of public resort are this season is fome appointed feast then particularly frequented, and amongst the officers of the court. the pastimes and groupes, ex

“ Nor are the inferior orders de- cepting in their dress, exactly reprived of their share of relaxation; semble an English wake.

The for the shops of cooks and confec- Turks are much delighted by a cir



cular swing, made by fixing a and inimitably ugly, differing enwheel on a high post, from which tirely from a turban; and fomehang many poles, with seats attach- times a famour, or black fur cap, ed to them. I have seen several of which is principally worn by drathese bearded children taking this gomen and pbysicians. In other amusement with great glee, and respects they are dreiled as the contrasted with the gravity of their Turks. Yellow flippers, or boots, habits nothing could be more ridi. are indulged only to those under culous. The Greeks have an uni- ambassadorial protection, and are versal license, dance through the an envied distiuction. When the ftreets to very rude mufic, and are present sultan came to the throne, in the zenith of their vivacity; he issued an edict that no unlicentbut the festivity of the Armenians, ed rayah thould appear publicly in a faturnine race, seems to confift yellow flippers. At that time he chiefly in being intoxicated, and took great pleasure in walking the jumping with the preposterous a&i- streets in disguise; when meeting vity of an elephant. In the Campo an ill starred Jew dresled contrary de' Morti, near Pera, so called from to law, he ordered his head to be being the cemetery of the Franks instantly struck off. This was his and Armenians, many of these first act of severity, which created droll scenes may be then contem- most unfavourable conjectures, not plated by an investigator of the altogether confirmed by his fubieprecise traits of character which quent reign. discriminate the mass of all na “ The Turks of better rank, and tions.

the regular citizens, wear what is “ The Turks have fumptuary called the long dress, with outer Jaws, and habits peculiar to profef- robes of fine cloth, shalloon, or pellions. By the turban differing in lices, which are in general use for fize and shape every man is known; the greater part of the year, and and 10 numerous are these distinc- conmonly of the most costly furs, tions, that a dragoman, long con. They are seldom seen without a' versant with Conftantinople, told. teipi in their hands; it is a string me he knew not half of them. of ninety beads corresponding The Emirs, real or pretended de- with the names of the deity, scendants from the prophet, are which they carry as much for adiftinguished by the green muslin, musement as devotion. Hamid the others wear white round a cap Ali, a late visier, wore one of pearl, of cloth, and the hcad is universally to perfect as to be valued at 3000l. very closely thaven. In the tur- fterling. bans of the oulemah there is a “ The common people, especially greater profufion of muslin, from those belonging to any military ten to twenty yards, which are pro- corps, have a jacket richly ornaportionably Targer, as the wigs of mented with goid or fik twift, professional men were formerly. trowsers of cloth, which close to The military, as the janitaries, bor. the middle of the leg, the other tandjis, and topjis, wear caps of the part of which is bare, and red flipmoft upcouth Thape and fashion, pers. Their great pride is to stick such as defy description. The into their girdles a pair of large rayahs are known by a head-dress horse pistols, a yataghán or long called a kalpac, made of lamb-fkin, knife, a banjiar or dagger, all pro


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