Imágenes de páginas


to Madelaine de la Tour, of Au- affaflios to murder him, which they vergne, of the house of Bouillon, were near perpetrating. Lorenzo allied to the blood royal of France. died May 4, 1519; his remains The lying Sleidan, to use the epi- were depofited in the sacrifty of thet of the emperor Charles V. St. Lorenzo's church, near thole of calls this lady Galla, of the house the duke of Nemours. His moof Bolonnois, but she was the se- nument is also the workmanship of cond daughter of John de la Tour, Michael Angelo; his effigies, and count of Auvergne, descended froin the figure of Aurora and Twilight, a brother of Godfrey, the firft are the admiration of conno fChriftian king of Jerusalem, by feurs. Jane of Bourbon, sister to the count “ Leo did not confine bis favours of Vendosme. She brought Los to the nearest of his name. He renzo a fortune of ten thousand was the patron of every one of his ducats per annum, chiefly the gift family, whether of the male or feof Francis I. who also presented male line, not forgetting the illehim with fitty thousand ducats out gitimate branches. He even form of the money raited for the crusade ed the project of leaving Julio, the against the sultan Selim I. and posthunous natural son of the unwhich Leo had given a brief to fortunate Julian, who fell a victhat monarch to apply to his own tim to the malice of pope Sixtus use.

IV. and the Pazzi, bis fucceffor in « It is not easy to estimate the the papal fee. Lorenzo, the Maggrief of this pontiit, when he faw nificent, had thewn his particular this prince brought to an early regard for his brother Julian, by grave, by a lingering illness con an extreme tenderness for this his tracted in France froni youthiul in- son, whom he educated with his temperance, and in a few days af. own children, treated as his ne. terwards Madelaine, in bringing phew, and loaded with every kiadinto the world Catherine, their ness. only child. The little orphan be His fine parts, learning, and came queen of France, and is fo taste, still, if poflible, Dore enwell known for the uncommon deared all the Medici to bimy. His beauty, fine accomplishments, and courage, assiduity, and the ease the vast extent of abilities the por- and dexterity wiih which he perfeffed, but which were rendered formed the most difficult and hadangerous in the extreme by the zardous enterprizes, won bim the atrocious wickedness of her map favour of the discerning Julius, pers.

who created him a knight of “ Lorenzo had little to recom- Rhodes, and grand prior of Capua, mend him to Leo, except his rela- and as fuch be carried the ftandard tionthip, as his character was chief- of the military order at the coroly formed of deceit, revenge, and nation of Leo. cowardice. When he had thame. The pontiff was no fooner fully deserted France, and dreaded seated upon the papal throne, than her vengeance, be meanly threw he obliged Julio to go into the the whole blanie upon his uncle church, though bis inclination led and benefactor. Instead of answer- him most to the camp. Ecclefiafing the challenge of the injured tical honours crouded upon him. duke of Urbino, as military ho- He received the archiepifcopate of pour demanded, he basely hired Florence, and the following year


was presented with a cardinal's chair abont eight. His remains hat, and made chancellor of the were depofited in a brick grave in Roman church, the next dignitary St. Peter's church, but were after. to the pope. The emperor Charles wards removed by Paul III. to the V. granted him great pentions, church of St. Maria-sopra-Miand when Leo broke with Cæsar, nerva. Francis I. to make a recompence « Revenge, more than policy, for the lofs it would occafion to the made Leo the inveterate enemy of cardinal, afligned him an annuity France; he remembered that the and preferments to the value of ten misfortunes of his house were in a thousand ducats yearly, as he had be great measure owing to that nafore done to Lorenzo. His promotions tion; but whenever his own or his in the church were beyond all de- family's interest demanded it, he cency, holding bishopricka in most altered his conduct. He professed of the kingdoms in Europe; and the utmost affection for Francis I. Leo, after Lorenzo's death, ap- at Bologna, where they had an inpointed him governor of Florence. terview, yet he took the first op

“ In all these various situations, portunity to break his engagements Julio acted with consummate pru- with that monarch. dence, and by the confidence Leo « Leo's excels of magnificence placed in him, he plainly pointed charmed the Romans; a medal him out as heir to the Medicean was struck with Liberalitas Pongrandeur. There was none of the tificia upon the reverse, with a elder branch of the family to con device suitable to the motto. He teft it with him, and if there had, was the first pontisf that had a mehis vast advantages would have le- dal elegantly wrought; lis predecured it to him against every oppo ceffor began to strike them. Marnent.

tin I. is the earliest who had one “ In this situation was the house struck in honour of his memory. of Medici, when Leo, its head, “ Leo's ambition and inclination was fuddenly called away by excets to enlarge the patri pony of St. of joy; for whilft he fat at tupper, Peter was equal to that of his prenews was brought him that the deceffor; but Julius left a full, French were beaten out of Italy; Leo an empty treasury. Other he cried out, · God has been so pontificates,' it was said, 'expir. . merciful to me, as to let me fee ied at the death of a pope, but his • three things, which I desired from continued long after.'

Hlis 011' the bottom of my heart :-10 bounded magnificence and libera

return with honour into Florence, lity, which his revenue, immense i whence I was banished with as it was, could not support, by

Thame; to have merit fuficient producing the taie of indulgencies, 'to advance me to the papacy; and began the Reformation. Some of " to see the French beaten out of them the pope had given to be • Italy.' In pronouncing of which raised by tale, in particular prolast words, he fell dead with the vinces, to his relations and friends; glass he held in his hand.

Saxony was apportioned to his fifter “ This event took place Decem- Maddelene, the wife of Francisco ber 2, 1521, when he had within Cibo, son of Junocent VIII. not a few days completed his forty- more from athinity to her than in eighth year, and fat in the papal gratitude to him, whose family liad


treated the Medici in the kindeft' that of a Bacchanaliao. With manner after their expulfion from all these excessive defects, he will Florence. These were sold at fo ever be remembered by the lovers great and extravagant a price, that of learning and taste with venerait called forth Luther, and Luther, tion. His reign was the golden age freedom from papal tyranny. of literature, and the arts were

“ His affection to his family, by not less obliged to him, owing in its excess, became highly criminal, a great measure to his father havbecause neither justice, honour, or ing selected those of the higheft gratitude, were any impediment to celebrity in every science for his the promoting their interest, for- tutors and early companions. Hox getting for that purpose every thing much is it to be lamented, that he due to his sacred character. It is was not equally virtuous as learned faid he did not even pretend to be- and elegant." lieve in revelation. His mirth was

Memoirs of BARON BORN.

[From Travels in HUNGARY, &c. by Robert Townson, LL.D. &c.

HE Baron was born at Cards- with the celebrated Ferber, who

“his .

noble family, and came early in life was in this tour that he so nearly to Vienna, and studied under the lost his life, and where he was Jesuits; who, no doubt, perceiv. tiruck with that disease which eming in him more than common bittered the rest of his days, and abilities, and that he would one which was only rendered support. day be an honour to their order, able by a ftrong philofophic mind prevailed on him to enter into it; and active difpofition. but of this fociety he was a mem " It was at Felso-Banyå where ber only for about a year and a he met with this misfortune, as aphalf. He then left Vienna and went pears from his eighteenth letter to to Prague, where, as it is the custom Mr. Ferber. He descended here in Germany, he studied the law. into a mine, where fire was used As soon as he had completed his to detach the ore, to obserre the ftudies, he made a tour through a efficacy of this means, too soon afpart of Germany, Holland, the ter the fire had been extinguished; Netherlands, and France; and re- and whilst the mine was full of ar. turning to Prague, he engaged in senical vapours raised by the heat. the studies of natural history, min. o My long filence,' says he to his ing, and their connected branches; friend Ferber, ' is the consequence and in 1770 he was received into • of an unlucky accident, which the department of the mines and : had almost cost me my life. I demint at Prague. As we learn from ' scended the Great Mine to see the his letters, this year he made a tour, nianner of applying the fire, and and visited the principal mines of its effects on the mine, when the Hungary and Transylvania, and "fire was hardly extinct, and the during it kept up a correspondence mine was still full of smoke. "


How greatly he suffered in his • Memoirs of a private Society in health by this accident appears from ? Bohemia.' his letter which we mentioned when “ His fame reaching the çmpress we spoke of Tokay; where it will Mary Therefa, in 1776 the called be remembered he complained that him to Vienna to arrange and de he could hardly bear the motion of scribe the imperial collection : and his carriage: upon this misfortune about two years after, he published he haftened to Vienna. After this the splendid work containing the he was appointed at Prague coun ! Conchology :' in the execution fellor of the mines. In 1771 he of this, I believe, he had some asg published a small work of the Je- fistance. The emprefs defrayed the fuit Poda, on the machinery used expenceş for a certain number of about mines; and the next year copies. On the death of this pa, his Lithophylacium Borneanum. tron the work was discontinued, This is the catalogue of his col. her successor, the emperor Joseph lection of fossils which he after- not favouring the undertaking. wards disposed of to the hon. Mr. He had likewise the honour of in. Greville. This work drew on him ftructing the arch-duchess Maria the attention of mineralogists, and Anna in natural history, who was brought him into correspondence partial to this entertaining study ; with the first men in this line. He and he formed and arranged for was now made a member of the her a neat museum. In 1779 he Royal Societies of Stockholm, Si was raised to the office of Actual enna and Padua ; and in 1774, the Counsellor of the court chamber same honour was conferred on him (Hof Kammer) in the department by the Royal Society of London. of the mines and mint. This of.

“ During his residence in Bohe. fice detained him constantly in Vimia, he did not apply himself to enna, and engaged the chief part the business of his charge alone; of his time. þut his active difpofition induced The consequences of his mifhim to seek for opportunities of fortune at Felfo-Banya began now extending knowledge, and of be- to be felt in the severest manner ; įng useful to the world.-He took he was attacked with the most exà part in the work entitled Por- cruciating colics, which rose to

traits of the Learned Men and such a degree as to threaten a speedy Artists of Bohemia and Moravia. termination of his life and miseries. He was likewise concerned in the In this depth of torment he had ? Acta Literaria Bohemiæ et Mora- recourse to the usual calmer of bo. I viæ; and the editor of the latter dily pain, opium; and a large porpublicly acknowledges in the pre- tion of this being placed by the face to it, how much Bohemian li fide of him, which he was ordered terature is indebted to him. Prague only to take in small doses ; once and Vienna were both without a brought to desperation through the public cabinet for the use of the intenfity of his pain, he swallowed students: it was at his instigation it at one draught. This brought that government was induced to' on a lethargy, which lafted fourform one, and he himself assisted and-twenty hours; but when he by his contributions and his labours. awoke he was free of his pains. In 1775 he laid the foundation of The disorder now attacked his legs a literary society, which published and feet, particularly his right leg, several yolumes under the title of and in this he was lame for the rest


of his life; sometimes the lame- , their meetings, differtations on ness was accompanied by pain, fome subject of History, Ethics, sometimes not. But his feet by or Moral Philosophy, were read by degrees withered, and he was ob- the members ; and commonly fomeliged to fit, or lie, or lean upon a thing on the history of ancient and fopha; though sometimes he was modern mysteries, and secret fo. so well as to be able to fit upon a cieties. These were afterwards ftool, but not to move from one publithed in the Diary for Free room to the otker without affift- masons, for the use of the initiat. ance.

ed, and not for public sale.- la “ His free and a&tive genius led the winter they met occasionally, him to interest himself in all the and held more public discourses, occurrences of the times, and to to which the members of the other take an active part in all the insti- lodges were allowed access. As tutionis and plans for enlightening most of the learned of Vienna beand reforming mankind. With longed to this lodge, it was very these benevolent intentions he form- natural to fuppore, that many of ed connections with the Free Ma. the dissertations read here were fons, whose views in this part of not quite within the limits of the the world were fomething more original plan of the society. It than eating and drinking, as may was these differtations, I believe, be conjectured by the laws and re- which gave rite to another peri. gulations made against masonry by odical work, entitled, “ Phyficathe emperor Joteph. Under The lifche Arbeiten der einträchtigen resa, this order was obliged to keep Freunde in Wien,' which was itself very tecret in Austria ; but continued for some time hy the BaJofeph, on his coming to the

coming to the ron and his brother Maloos. He throne, tolerated it, and the baron was likewise active in extirpating founded in the Austrian metropo- fuperftitions of -various kinds which lis a lodge called the True Con- hal crept into the other lodges, and

cord. This was no card club, or equally zealous in giving to these association for eating and drinking, focieties such an organization as where the leading members were might render them useful to the chosen by their capacity for taking public. in folids and liquids, and where a “ The Baron, and many others good fong was considered as a first of his lodge, belonged to the forare qualification ; but a society of ciety of the Illuminated.' This learned men, whose lodge was a was no dishonour to him : the views place of rendezvous for the literati of this order, at least at first, feem of the capital.

to have been commendable ; they « No doubt the obstacles these were the improvement of mankind, gentlemen would find, to the pro- not the destruction of fociety. Such gress of science and useful know- inftitutions are only useful or danleuge, in the chur h hierarchy, and gerous, and to be approved of or in the cabals of courtiers, would condemned, according to the state draw their aliention to political of society; and this was before the subjects; and subjects were really French revolution, and in a coundifcuffed here which the hurch try less enlightened than almost any had forbid to be spoken of, and other part of Gerinany. So zeal. which the government must have ous a friend was he to them, that withed not to be thought of. At when the elector of Bavaria or


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